R. Peter Hobson
In order to understand the pathogenesis of autism, one needs to have an adequate framework within which to think about the nature of typical as well as atypical early human mental development. From a complementary perspective, the study of autism may challenge our ways of thinking about the mind itself. For example, are we justified in introducing divisions among cognition, conation, and affect in characterizing early development? What is the epistemological basis for children's understanding of others' minds? How should we think about the origins of and basis for symbolic functioning? This chapter explores the relevance of philosophy for our accounts of autism, highlighting the importance of ideas from Wittgenstein and Strawson in particular, and illustrates fresh ways in which autism might contribute to debates in philosophy of mind.
John Dunlosky and Sarah (Uma) K. Tauber
Metamemory has a rich history: Its empirical and theoretical roots can be traced back to at least 1965, although metamemory techniques have been developed and discussed since Aristotle. In this chapter, we describe the origins of metamemory research by showcasing some founders of the field and their methodological and theoretical contributions. Joseph Hart conducted what is considered the first objective metamemory research, John Flavell coined the term metamemory in 1971 and provided theoretical fodder for the field, and Ann Brown brought early attention to metamemory by emphasizing its relevance to education. In 1990, Nelson and Narens introduced a framework that unified the field, which remains influential today. The chapter follows the early progression of metamemory research and foreshadows contemporary approaches to metamemory. It ends with a user’s guide to this handbook, including an overview of each section, an introduction to individual chapters, and recommendations for how to approach the Handbook.
Kelso Cratsley and Richard Samuels
This chapter examines the core explanatory strategies of cognitive science and their application to the study of psychopathology. In addition to providing a taxonomy of different strategies, the chapter illustrates their application, with special attention to autism spectrum disorder and major depressive disorder. It concludes by considering two challenges to the prospects of a developed cognitive science of psychopathology.
This chapter offers an overview of the major concepts and developments in Gestalt theory, which was the major theoretical framework for most of the empirical work on perceptual organization in the first half of the past century. A historical review of this school of thought, with all of the key players and the context within which they worked, provides contemporary scientists with the proper perspective to be able to build on the foundations from the past, while simultaneously avoiding its mistakes. Difficult theoretical concepts, such as Gestalt laws, Prägnanz, and isomorphism are explained. The emphasis lies on the Berlin school of Gestalt psychology (Wertheimer, Köhler, and Koffka), but the relationships with the Graz and Leipzig schools, and with the second generation in Europe and the USA, are discussed as well.
Scott R. Laker, Stanley A. Herring, and Richard H. Adler Esq.
Following the lead of Washington State and the Zackery Lystedt Law, all states have now passed laws that are designed to create a safer environment for youth athletes participating in sports with regard to concussions and head injury. These laws, while having a positive effect on concussion awareness, have created concern for some healthcare providers of legislated medical care. This chapter discusses the individual tenets of the Zackery Lystedt Law, its genesis in Washington State, the spread of concussion legislation across the United States, and its potential legal ramifications. Some of the major differences among states that have passed similar laws are also discussed.