Kelly C. Allison and David B. Sarwer
Body image disturbances are common among women in the general population. Less is known about their prevalence and impact during pregnancy. This chapter examines the history of body image theory and research. Next, we examine issues related to body image during pregnancy, such as pregravid weight, gestational weight gain, and the unique ways women think about the changes to their body during pregnancy. The role of physical activity, mood, and eating disorders in relation to peripartum body image disturbance is also discussed. Finally, assessment of body image disturbance and existing treatments are presented. Future research is needed to develop peripartum-specific body image assessment tools and to assess the impact of psychosocial interventions during and after pregnancy on body image dissatisfaction.
Michael Kölch, Jörg M. Fegert, and Ulrike M.E. Schulze
In child and adolescent mental health care, the competing goals of protecting young people as a vulnerable population and their increasing legal autonomy constitute a specific ethical problem. Improving care, assessment, and treatment interventions requires research. Research that includes this vulnerable underage population has to be minimally burdensome and harmful and requires the informed consent of both children and parents. Therefore, adherence to evidence-based interventions and weighing the risks and benefits of interventions are of utmost importance in child and adolescent psychiatry. While access to mental health care can vary widely, it is crucial for at-risk populations such as children from families of low socioeconomic status, children of the mentally ill, and, in particular, children in youth welfare systems.
Brian P. Daly, Cindy Buchanan, Kimberly Dasch, Dawn Eichen, and Clare Lenhart
Abstract The cluster of behavior problems known as the disruptive behavior disorders, including oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, represent the most common reason for referral among all childhood mental health problems. Without early preventive and intervention services, these behaviors may escalate over time, becoming more frequent, severe, and maladaptive in nature, resulting in significant and long-lasting negative consequences that affect individuals, families, schools, communities, and society in general. Historically, disruptive behavior disorders were perceived to be some of the most difficult disorders with which to intervene and ameliorate symptoms. Fortunately, evidence-based preventive and early intervention programs delivered across various settings have been developed that improve outcomes for these children and adolescents and their families.
Laura J. Miller
Becoming pregnant and giving birth can lead to considerable psychological, behavioral, and cognitive transformation. The nature and scope of change varies a great deal from woman to woman. This chapter summarizes qualitative and quantitative research on normal psychological adaptation to pregnancy, including recognition and acceptance of the pregnant state, experience of the boundary between self and fetus, and body image changes. It reviews research on internal representations of the fetus and fetal and neonatal attachment. Perinatal changes in stress reactivity and coping style are reviewed. The chapter explains the influence of women’s prenatal expectations about labor and delivery on subsequent experiences and reactions and describes normative postpartum mood reactivity. Perinatal effects on sleep, physical activity, sexual activity, and eating patterns are described. Controversies about the effects of pregnancy on cognition are examined. The chapter also covers topics related to the transition to motherhood, including influences on maternal self-esteem and self-efficacy.