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Alzheimer’s Disease: Causes, Mechanisms, and Steps Toward Prevention  

Se Hoon Choi and Rudolph E. Tanzi

Online publication date:
Sep 2020
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly; it is clinically characterized by progressive memory loss and catastrophic cognitive dysfunction. ... More

Changes in TMS measures of cortical excitability induced by transcranial direct and alternating current stimulation  

Michael A. Nitsche, Walter Paulus, and Gregor Thut

Brain stimulation with weak electrical currents (transcranial electrical stimulation, tES) is known already for about 60 years as a technique to generate modifications of cortical ... More

Clinical utility of TMS-EMG measures  

Robert Chen and Kai-Hsiang Stanley Chen

This chapter focuses on the utility of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for clinical diagnosis and follow-up. It first introduces the methods to measure corticospinal excitability, ... More

Computational methods for dosimetry  

Axel Thielscher, Kristoffer H. Madsen, Gary E. Strangman, and Bradley E. Treeby

Computational methods for dosimetry allow estimating and optimizing the spatial distribution and strength of the induced fields and waves in the brain, based on detailed models of the head ... More

Cortical silent period  

Markus Kofler, Ulf Ziemann, and Vasilios K. Kimiskidis

The cortical silent period (cSP) refers to a period of suppression or silencing of ongoing electromyographic (EMG) activity during voluntary muscle contraction induced by a magnetic ... More

Emotional Memory in the Human Brain  

Leonard Faul and Kevin S. LaBar

Online publication date:
Sep 2020
Across a lifetime, people tend to remember some experiences better than others, and often these biases in memory are fueled by the emotions felt when initially encoding an event. The ... More

Genetic Analysis of Behavior in Drosophila  

Björn Brembs

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The main function of brains is to generate adaptive behavior. Far from being the stereotypical, robot-like insect, the fruit fly Drosophila exhibits astounding flexibility and chooses ... More

Insights into Cognitive Disorders in Aging and Mental Illness: Molecular Influences on Circuits of the Prefrontal Cortex  

Amy Arnsten

Online publication date:
Sep 2020
The newly evolved prefrontal cortex underlies our highest order cognitivewe functions yet is remarkably vulnerable to dysfunction in most mental disorders. The prefrontal cortex subserves ... More

Neuronal Excitability in Memory Allocation: Mechanisms and Consequences  

Alexander D. Jacob, Andrew J. Mocle, Paul W. Frankland, and Sheena A. Josselyn

Online publication date:
Sep 2020
Throughout the brain, sparse ensembles of neurons, termed “engrams,” are responsible for representing events. Engrams are composed of neurons active at the time of an event, and recent ... More

NR4A Transcription Factor Family: Key Regulators of Memory Formation  

Dina P. Matheos and Marcelo A. Wood

Online publication date:
Sep 2020
Memory formation is one of the most important functions of the brain regarding individual identity and survival, as well as propagation of a species. Decades of research at numerous levels ... More

Paired-pulse interactions  

Robin F. H. Cash and Ulf Ziemann

Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) techniques provide an opportunity to examine and better understand the excitatory and inhibitory circuitry in the human cortex in health ... More

Pharmacology of TMS measures  

Ulf Ziemann

Application of a single dose of a central nervous system (CNS) active drug with a defined mode of action has been proven useful to explore pharmaco-physiological properties of transcranial ... More

Physics and biophysics fundamentals of transcranial stimulation  

Boshuo Wang, Aman S. Aberra, Warren M. Grill, and Angel V. Peterchev

Transcranial stimulation induces or modulates neural activity in the brain through basic physical and biophysical processes. Transcranial electrical stimulation and transcranial magnetic ... More

Psychobiotics: Biotherapeutics for Positive Mental Health  

Sabrina Mörkl, Mary I. Butler, Franziska Cichini, John F. Cryan, and Timothy G. Dinan

For centuries, individuals have consumed probiotics as a means of improving quality of life and preventing disease. The gut microbiota refers to the collection of microorganisms residing ... More

Search Strategies for Intentionality in the Honeybee Brain  

Randolf Menzel

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Do insects, like other animals, expect future events, predict the value of potential actions, and decide between behavioral options without having access to the indicating stimuli? These ... More

State-dependent studies on perception and cognition  

Juha Silvanto

Neuronal response to an external stimulus is affected not only by stimulus properties, but also by the baseline activation state; this is referred to as state-dependency. Leveraging this ... More

TMS in working memory research  

Jeffrey S. Johnson, Eva Feredoes, and Bradley R. Postle

This chapter provides a broad overview of research focused on the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), both alone and together with neural recording modalities such as magnetic ... More

Transcranial static magnetic field stimulation  

Guglielmo Foffani and Antonio Oliviero

Focal application of a relatively strong permanent magnet over the human cortex induces neurophysiological and behavioral effects. This discovery led to the inclusion of transcranial static ... More