Frank Burch Brown
In the cinematic world, the representation of the Holocaust began with the Third Reich's propaganda films and the footage taken by the Allies at liberated concentration camps. In the early postwar period, European filmmakers exaggerated resistance against Nazi Germany's policies and obscured the specificity of Jewish victimization, while Hollywood avoided the topic, allegedly because it was too depressing and parochial. The NBC miniseries Holocaust (1978) and Claude Lanzmann's documentary Shoah (1985) shattered these patterns, and Schindler's List (1993) and Life Is Beautiful (1997) stimulated a second round of Holocaust-related cinema and scholarship on it, along with considerable controversy. This article shows that studies of Holocaust films made in particular nations have been a staple of research in the field, but that scholarship has shifted since 2000 toward analysis of the cinematic qualities of Holocaust-related film, the impact of globalization, comparisons with portrayals of other genocides, and the use of film in Holocaust education.
Ahuva Belkin and Gad Kaynar
This article describes the history of the Jewish theatre, Jewish theatre studies, the history of the Israeli theatre from 1889 to 2001, and Israeli theatre studies. Although Jews were known as the People of the Book, and despite the very rich literature attached to Judaism, the dramatic genre never became an integral part of Jewish civilization, and theatre as an institution was never a part of its cultural life. This may be in part because the Bible and the book of oral law — the Talmud and later rabbinical writings — contain vehement exhortations against the theatre. In Judaism, jesters are identified with idleness and heresy. Meanwhile, the extent of performative activity in Israel is impressive for a country with no theatrical tradition and a population of merely 4.5 million Jewish and Hebrew-speaking inhabitants. Between 1970 and 1990, Israel held first place in the world in theatre attendance per capita.
J. Sage Elwell
This essay begins with the observation that there was a time when art was religious and yet today contemporary art is overwhelmingly atheistic. To understand how and why art and religion split, this essay looks to the Renaissance as a pivotal moment in art history when the arts turned from religious obligation to artistic exploration. Specifically, this essay focuses on the impact that economic changes, the progress of science, and the rise of humanism in fifteenth and sixteenth century Europe had on the divorce of art from religion. These factors—patronage, a scientific worldview, and a humanistic philosophy—constitute a threefold force that moved art away from religion, and importantly, continues to function as a wedge between the two.