This chapter considers the emergence of the complex relationship between Anglicanism and a broader evangelical movement (often known as ‘pan-evangelicalism’) which transcends denominational boundaries. The origins of this relationship goes back to the sixteenth century, but became especially important from the eighteenth century onwards as a result of the ‘evangelical revival’ in England, and its extended influence. The expansion of British colonial power was an important factor in consolidating and extending an evangelical influence within Anglicanism, especially on account of the role of entrepreneurial individuals and mission societies in propagating the Christian faith. The chapter concludes with reflections on the future of this relationship, given contemporary developments within both Anglicanism and evangelicalism.
The rapidly growing discipline of Congregational Studies, which draws on insights from across a number of different academic field, offers a particularly interesting and relatively dispassionate way of understanding and comparing different forms of congregational life from a detailed analysis of the lived experience of communities so as to develop what has been called a congregational ecology. Congregational life displays elements of social capital as well as conflict. Across many different denominations and in different contexts this area of study has been able to show that there are important commonalities as well as some distinctive differences between churches and congregations. This chapter will suggest how Congregational Studies might be used effectively to understand and locate these commonalities and differences within the different churches, and connected communities of worldwide Anglicanism.
This chapter examines the way in which Early Modern Jesuits understood the practice of confession. As leading actors in the apostolic field, they often promoted a vision of the sacrament of penance, which, in stark contrast to its connotations as a means of punishment, turned it into an effective tool oriented toward inner reform of the individual. Based on analysis of the Iberian interior missions, a range of practices is considered—including examination of conscience, general confession, and spiritual direction—that imbued the act of confession with a strong introspective dimension in the Society’s missionary contexts. Thus, this chapter highlights the role of such instruments in the development of forms of subjectivity, which contributed to individuals “entering into themselves,” exploring inner spaces of their soul. The particular geography of this space had to be known to conquer it and to thus lead the penitent toward a devoted life and Christian perfection.
Kevin J. Wetmore Jr.
The historic Jesuit theater represents two centuries of didactic theater in which the Society of Jesus, following both the organizational instructions and Spiritual Exercises of founder Ignatius of Loyola, used theater to inculcate virtue in both performer and audience member while teaching Latin, dance, poise, rhetoric, oratory, and confidence to the students who performed. Jesuit spirituality is inherently theatrical, and conversely Jesuit theater was intended to also be highly spiritual. The dramaturgy and scenography was spectacular and designed to draw audiences who would delight in them and learn the moral lessons the Jesuits hoped to teach while simultaneously drawing them away from a corrupt public theater. This essay considers Jesuit drama and theater in four key aspects: (1) Jesuit spirituality and performative practice; (2) the historic Jesuit educational theater of early modern Europe; (3) Jesuit drama in the missions outside of Europe; and (4) contemporary Jesuits involved in theater.
Leonard Fernando SJ
Jesuits have been a continuing presence in India since the sixteenth century. With the help of local people, they not only spread the Christian faith but also did a lot for the growth of the Indian nation, especially through education, scientific advancements, and betterment of the lives of underprivileged people. They attempted enculturation of the Christian faith in multicultural India; learnt of, discussed, and respected other religions; and mastered and contributed to the growth of Indian languages. Now about 4,000 Jesuits—mostly Indians—are working in eighteen Provinces/Regions in India. There are three major phases in the history of Jesuits in India—the beginning, suppression, and restoration. All along, true to the Ignatian charism, members of the Society of Jesus have kept their daring missionary zeal of moving to the frontiers—challenging, unknown, and unexplored.
This chapter discusses Anglican practice of and engagement in mission, concluding with some suggested future trajectories. The Five Marks of Mission are considered in some detail along with other contextual trends such as the church growth movement, mission-shaped church and Fresh Expressions of church which have been influential throughout parts of the Anglican Communion. The theology of missio Dei is discussed along with the importance of contextualization for mission. Migration and migrant churches are described as a mission issue along with their impact on the growth of local churches as well as its influence on the shape of World Christianity. The chapter concludes with reflections on the role and place of Anglicanism within the world church.
For Anglicans there has never been a distinct division between public and private, political and personal, when it comes to matters of faith and their application in Christian ethics. This chapter considers Anglicanism’s engagement with politics. It looks at how Anglicans have addressed issues of justice, righteousness, and redemption from the ethics of individual choice through to national and international politics and economics. This chapter analyses the history of Anglican approaches to politics by unpicking scripture. It discusses how Anglicanism has interacted with politics by looking at churches and nations, the evolution of the Anglican Communion’s institutional life, and contemporary culture.
Scholars have recently begun synthesizing data on the massive aid response by religious organizations after the March 11, 2011, compound earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disasters in northeast Japan. This article begins with a summary of recent statistical assessments that detail how much money religions raised, the kinds of material aid they provided, and the numbers of volunteers they mobilized. It then provides two contrasting ethnographic case studies of grassroots-level religious responses that reveal aspects that do not fit a statistical framework. The article highlights the importance of reading ethnographic accounts in combination with quantified data about Japanese religion to complicate reliance on assessments provided by institutional administrators in order to better understand how aid efforts take shape in local communities.