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The Age of Enlightenment  

Alan Charles Kors

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This article discusses the meanings, origin, context, scope, and central intellectual claims of atheism in the Age of the European Enlightenment. It emphasizes debates about proofs of the ... More

Atheism and the Rise of Science  

Taner Edis

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013
Atheists, conservative theists, and religious liberals often read the history of science in ways that support their own position. Atheists expect continual mutual support between science ... More

Central and Eastern Europe  

Irena Borowik, Branko Ančić, and Radosław Tyrała

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013
This essay offers a fresh exploration of atheism in post-communist Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), while also providing an overview of existing research into atheism and non-religion in ... More

The First Millennium  

Mark Edwards

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
While Sceptics canvassed arguments against the existence of any gods, and Cynics were abrasive in their strictures on conventional religion, late antiquity offers no indubitable evidence of ... More

From the Pre-Socratics to the Hellenistic Age  

David Sedley

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Jul 2013
‘Atheism’ is a term that has historically carried a wide range of meanings and connotations. Popular speech, in particular, admits of a range of definitions, but the same is true of ... More

Humanism and Its Critics  

Slavica Jakelić

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
The most significant contemporary challenges to humanism do not come from critics who relegate it to anti-religiousness or exclusively immanent concerns, but from those who critique ... More

Humanism and Technology  

Cor van der Weele and Henk van den Belt

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
The chapter argues that in human relations with technology, assumptions about ourselves are just as crucial as assumptions about technology. Neither the optimistic traditional humanist ... More

Humanism as a Religious Orientation?  

William Hart

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
Atheism, humanism, and naturalism are three expressions of nontheism. They are “ideal types,” abstractions from the empirical messiness of the phenomena they describe. These types represent ... More

Humanism in Europe  

Stefan Schröder

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
This chapter addresses secular humanism in Europe and the way it is “lived” by and within its major institutions and organizations. It examines how national and international secular ... More

The Medieval Period  

Dorothea Weltecke

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013
This article points to the influence of medieval debates about the possible non-existence of a God on the formation of modern atheist discourse. On the basis of sources composed by Muslims, ... More

Renaissance and Reformation  

Denis J.-J. Robichaud

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013
Were there atheists and was there atheism in the Renaissance and the Reformation? There are no clear records for self-professed atheists at the twilight of the period, yet it is largely at ... More

The (Long) Nineteenth Century  

David Nash

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013
This essay examines the evolution and growth of the secular movement in nineteenth-century England. It traces the different strands of atheist and agnostic thought and shows how these were ... More

The Twentieth Century  

Callum G. Brown

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013
Disaffection from organized religion in the twentieth century led to rising levels of religious apathy as well as atheism. This is explored in this essay by enumerating the scale of change ... More

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