Jane V. Oakhill, Molly S. Berenhaus, and Kate Cain
This chapter considers the normal development of children’s reading comprehension, as well as individual differences and specific difficulties related to children’s reading comprehension. Most of the studies in this area have been carried out with children who are learning to read in an alphabetic orthography, and this chapter reflects that bias. The chapter outlines the development of various processes that are related to reading comprehension in the early school years. The authors also consider the relationship between these processes and reading comprehension ability. The chapter concludes with a consideration of the implications for research and practice during the early school years.
Michael G. Cutter, Denis Drieghe, and Simon P. Liversedge
This chapter explores the integration of information acquired over multiple eye fixations during reading by reviewing studies using the boundary paradigm. This integration process is examined for information extracted from the end of the fixated word, the word to the right of the fixated word, and the word two words to the right of the fixated word. The review shows that the amount of information integrated across fixations varies for these three different types of previewed visual information. A large variety of information extracted from a parafoveal word is integrated across fixations, including orthography, phonology, and meaning. The chapter considers how such integration processes operate across several languages to allow understanding of how the way in which linguistic characteristics are orthographically coded in a particular language constrains parafoveal processing. It is concluded that readers preferentially integrate the information that is most useful for the initiation of lexical access.
Diane F. Halpern and Heather A. Butler
In this chapter, we summarize the responses of 80 educators in higher education. They answered questions about ways to enhance undergraduate education in psychology, and by extension, in all of the other disciplines as well. Their empirically informed responses provide guidelines for many contemporary issues, including incorporating diversity in learning experiences, using models of teaching to guide classroom activities, making technology work in ways that enhance learning, and using new knowledge from the learning sciences to support “deep learning.” This group of educators also made recommendations organized for different stakeholders in higher education (students, professors, administrators, policy makers, media, and the general public). Their responses comprise quality principles for enhancing undergraduate education, which promise students around the world a better future through education.
Maricela Correa-Chávez, Heather Mangione, and Kaitlin Black
This chapter examines how teaching and learning is organized in many communities around the world. It contrasts how child learning is organized by Observing and Pitching In (Rogoff et al., 2013) in communities where schooling has historically not been central to childhood with how learning is often organized in schools and highly schooled communities. The focus is on children’s inclusion in community and family activity, the initiative they take in participating in activities, and the different forms of attention and communication fostered and used in these contexts. The chapter also examines the sociocultural context of school and the changes observed in communities as schooling has become more common over generations. It briefly explores variations in schools, as well as variation in engagement with school, and suggests that school ways of learning and community ways of learning might co-exist to form part of a child’s repertoire of learning practices.
Bridgette Martin Hard and James J. Gross
Teaching introductory psychology presents many challenges. These include the diversity of teaching goals, the broad content, and the hefty enrollments. The course also presents teachers with the opportunity to make a number of significant contributions. This chapter describes an approach to teaching introductory psychology that is designed to address its challenges and opportunities. This approach involves making the course a platform for teaching graduate and undergraduate students to teach. In our approach, students and teachers learn in parallel. We share three key features of our approach to educating students and teachers simultaneously, namely encouraging skill development, fostering growth mindsets, and building social connections.
Wayne Weiten and Jeremy Ashton Houska
Introductory Psychology is one of the most widely taken courses in the undergraduate curriculum. Millions upon millions of students have had their first, and perhaps only, exposure to psychological science in this course, which means that our discipline has a lot riding on the outcomes that occur in countless classrooms. The enormous breadth of the Introductory Psychology course presents daunting challenges for instructors, but the course also presents a precious opportunity to dispel students’ largely inaccurate views of psychology. In this chapter, we review research and scholarship on the introductory course. We examine the course’s history, objectives, content, and textbooks. Along the way we discuss research on introductory students’ academic skills, expectations for the course, and misconceptions. We also explore instructional methods, active learning, the use of technology, and the educational value of requiring students to participate in subject pools.
Alexander Pollatsek and Rebecca Treiman
This chapter serves as an introduction and outline for the remainder of the handbook. After first considering the importance of writing and reading in society, an overview of the history of reading research is provided. The chapter discusses the impact of the cognitive revolution, which began in the 1950s, on both basic reading research and research on the teaching of reading. The conclusion of the chapter summarizes the five sections of the handbook: the Introduction, Word Identification, Reading Sentences and Texts, Reading and Spelling Development, and Reading Instruction. Previews are provided of the chapters in each of the sections and the general themes and issues in the chapter are discussed.
This chapter discusses whether sound is involved in the process of skilled (and apparently silent) reading of words and texts, and, if so, how. The term “phonological coding” encompasses a broad variety of phenomena, such as inner speech and subvocalization. In the research on single-word encoding, the focus has largely been on the level of phonemic coding, and the controversies have largely been about whether readers do this encoding with something like a rule-governed process or by learning correlations between visual and auditory patterns. The chapter also reviews the large literature that examines phonological coding in reading sentences and text using eye-movement methodology, including display change techniques. Other aspects of phonological coding discussed include its role to mark stress and its role in short-term memory to facilitate the reading of text. In addition, the chapter attempts to clarify the relationship between phonological coding and subvocalization.
Jamie G. McMinn and Dana S. Dunn
Psychology teachers often must decide what material to cover in their courses. Particularly in introductory courses, do we cover many topics superficially, or do we delve deeply into fewer topics, sacrificing broad coverage? In this chapter, we explore how a core curriculum in psychology can assist faculty members in structuring their programs, curricula, and class activities to achieve student learning outcomes (SLOs). We begin by describing the components of the core psychology curriculum and why it is needed. We then discuss how the core relates to expectations of psychology graduates and to the assessment of SLOs. After exploring its advantages, we address criticisms of a core curriculum, including what courses should be included, how a core can lead to nondistinctive experiences, and what challenges arise in implementing and maintaining a core. We end with recommendations for how faculty can maximize the benefits while overcoming the challenges of a core curriculum.
Jeffrey D. Holmes and Bernard C. Beins
The ability to understand and appreciate research is an incredibly important learning outcome for undergraduate psychology students. One strategy for increasing students’ understanding of research is for students to engage in laboratory activities. This chapter provides guidance for developing laboratory courses in undergraduate psychology programs. The chapter begins with a rationale for undergraduate laboratory courses, followed by objectives for laboratory courses, suggestions for course structure, and a description of a specific curricular program. The chapter also addresses potential challenges that faculty members seeking to implement laboratory courses are likely to encounter.
Jeffrey R. Stowell
This chapter highlights current and emerging technologies that can be used in the classroom to promote student engagement and enhance learning. It is written for instructors who are familiar with technologies that may be commonplace today, but who may have not applied these technologies to teaching and learning in the classroom. Examples of using technology in the classroom come primarily from psychology and other social sciences. The main menu of the chapter includes mobile devices and apps, classroom presentation software, digital recordings, social media, and serious gaming, with a side dish of the future’s “Internet of Things.” The conclusion emphasizes making a judicious selection of technologies to support the course’s learning goals in the context of instructor and student characteristics and pedagogy choices.