Edward S. Shapiro, Jaime Benson, Nathan Clemens, and Karen L. Gischlar
The assessment of academic skills is an essential and critical component of the life of all schools. Like the assessment of other areas of functioning, assessment of academic skills needs to include multiple methods, multiple modalities, and multiple perspectives to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the problem. The process of assessment needs to cut across the range of direct and indirect approaches in order to capture a complete viewpoint of the academic skill problems that the student is experiencing. Included in the chapter are brief reviews of direct assessment methods built on observation, curriculum-based assessment, normative or criterion-referenced standardized tests, permanent product or portfolio review, as well as indirect methods built upon rating scales and interviews with teachers and students.
Academic Interventions: What School Psychologists Need to Know for Their Assessment and Problem Solving Consultation Roles
Virginia W. Berninger, Michel Fayol, and Nicole Alston–Abel
This chapter provides an overview of critical concepts about academic interventions that school psychologists can apply in their assessment (prevention and diagnosis) and problem solving consultation roles. Topics covered include (a) general principles from research on reading, writing, math, and science instruction and learning; (b) home–school relationships; and (c) issues of diversity, motivation, and interpersonal relationships. School psychologists are encouraged to read widely and deeply the research literature on academic instruction and learning, to which many disciplines have contributed. School psychologists are also encouraged to practice and master the artful transformation of that research knowledge to the individual case at hand within a specific social context, including the family, classroom, school, community, and culture.
Maureen A. McCarthy, Dana S. Dunn, Jane S. Halonen, and Suzanne C. Baker
The authors provide a rationale for academic program reviews (APRs), highlighting their role in improving teaching, learning, and program quality in psychology departments. Following a brief history of accreditation in higher education, they introduce the purpose and scope of quality benchmarking in psychology program. Specific guidelines for organizing an APR for a psychology department include writing and organizing a self-study document, selecting an external reviewer(s) to lead the program evaluation, and planning for and scheduling activities for a reviewer’s visit. The essay concludes by considering the future of the APR in psychology education, especially at the undergraduate level.
Elaine Clark and Janiece L. Pompa
Current neuroscience research suggests that with appropriate interventions of sufficient duration and frequency, struggling readers can access quicker, more efficient neurologic pathways for reading. Some research has indicated, however, that effective remediation may require 90 minutes of daily direct instruction in reading, for one to three years, before permanent structural changes in the brain are seen. In this chapter, the application of neuroscience research to reading interventions is discussed. Components of effective remedial reading interventions are reviewed, with examples given of research-supported Tier 3 and Tier 4 instructional programs. The authors raise questions, however, about the sufficiency of RTI methods alone to identify students with specific learning disabilities, and design interventions that can effectively meet their educational needs.
Kathleen S. Arnos and Arti Pandya
Genetic factors are believed to account for more than half of all cases of congenital or early-onset moderate to profound deafness. The identification of several dozen genes for deafness, one of which accounts for a high proportion of all childhood deafness, has enabled the identification of the exact cause of deafness in many children through genetic testing. Parents, family members, deaf and hard-of-hearing adults, as well as health care and educational professionals often are unaware of the exact process and goals of genetic evaluation and may have questions about the usefulness of genetic testing. Sensitive and appropriate genetic evaluation and testing, coupled with appropriate interpretation and information through genetic counseling, can be invaluable to many families. Health professionals and those who work with deaf children in educational and service settings play an important role in helping parents and family members understand the value of a genetic evaluation and making referrals to genetics professionals.
Suzanne C. Baker and Catherine L. Franssen
The study of animal behavior holds a special place in psychology, as many early psychologists studied behavior across a range of species. Although psychology is frequently defined as “the scientific study of behavior and mental processes,” contemporary psychology focuses on the behavior of humans. Including a comparative perspective can provide students with a clearer understanding of behavioral diversity and the factors that influence it. We discuss topics typically covered in an animal behavior course, along with some newer emerging topics in the discipline, and provide information about teaching resources and strategies. We also provide examples for incorporating a comparative perspective throughout areas of the psychology curriculum such as brain and behavior, sensation and perception, cognition, and personality.
Bert De Smedt and Roland H. Grabner
In this chapter, we explore three types of applications of neuroscience to mathematics education: neurounderstanding, neuroprediction, and neurointervention. Neurounderstanding refers to the idea that neuroscience is generating knowledge on how people acquire mathematical skills and how this learning is reflected at the biological level. Such knowledge might yield a better understanding of the typical and atypical development of school-taught mathematical competencies. Neuroprediction deals with the potential of neuroimaging data to predict future mathematical skill acquisition and response to educational interventions. In neurointervention, we discuss how brain imaging data have been used to ground interventions targeted at mathematics learning and how education shapes the neural circuitry that underlies school-taught mathematics. We additionally elaborate on recently developed neurophysiological interventions that have been shown to affect mathematical learning. While these applications offer exciting opportunities for mathematics education, some potential caveats should be considered, which are discussed at the end of this chapter.
Applying the Portfolio Model of Adaptability: A Career Guide to Managing Academic Environments and Departmental Politics
Frederick T. L. Leong, Madhur Chandra, and Siddharth Chandra
In this chapter, we propose the use of the Portfolio Model of Adaptability (PMA) to help faculty manage their career advancement in academia. We begin with an overview of complexity theory as it relates to academic environments and describe several conceptual models for understanding the organizational and interpersonal dynamics within colleges and universities. In viewing the academic environment through the perspective of a Lewinian force-field analysis, we recommend the use of a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis. We also illustrate the importance of Positionality when conducting a force-field analysis or a SWOT analysis. In addition, we argue that Positionality needs to be understood from a person–environment fit perspective. Career success is viewed as achievement of optimal fit at the various levels. Finally, we move to the central theme of our chapter, which is the application of the Portfolio Model of Adaptability to help us manage this complexity and prevailing and countervailing forces within our academic environment when charting a course toward a successful academic career. The Portfolio Model is described and followed by examples of the application of the model to the academic environment across the different levels of person–environment fit.
Barbara R. Schirmer and Cheri Williams
The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of the research on approaches to reading instruction with deaf students. Although the body of research literature on the reading processes of deaf students consistently generates implications for instruction, relatively few studies have investigated instructional interventions with deaf readers. Brief descriptions of the research published before 2000 are offered in this chapter, except in cases of early seminal studies and lone studies in major areas, as a foundation for understanding the current research that is described in greater detail. The chapter concludes with a discussion of implications for future research on instructional approaches that could serve to inform teacher practice.
Jenny L. Singleton and Samuel J. Supalla
This chapter reviews published or known assessments of children’s language proficiency across a number of the world’s signed languages, including American Sign Language, British Sign Language, Australian Sign Language, Sign Language of the Netherlands, and German Sign Language. Critical issues in sign language assessment are also discussed, with special attention to possible threats to test reliability and validity. For example, test examiners may doubt the authenticity of the elicited language sample from a deaf, signing child, or test developers may question whether an adaptation of a spoken-language test is appropriate for use with deaf, signing children. The authors conclude that there remains a critical need in many countries for commercially available, and easy to administer, signed language proficiency assessments for use in research and education settings with deaf and hearing individuals.
Kurt Kraiger and Natalie Wolfson
This chapter describes methods of assessing the learning needs and evaluating the development of individuals within the context of a lifelong learning support system. Because lifelong learning is self-directed and informal in nature, we propose a needs assessment and evaluation design that is customized by participant. Participants are first assessed on various organizationally-relevant as well as lifelong-learning-relevant competencies and then linked, in a matrix format, to lifelong learning opportunities within and outside the organization that suit their competency needs. We then propose that, as learners engage in lifelong learning activities, they be periodically evaluated in terms of their improvement along different competencies. This information can be used to modify individuals’ lifelong learning program as well as, on the aggregate level, to inform decisions about how to allocate organizational resources and to provide evidence to support the system.
Lynn Gracin Collins and Sandra B. Hartog
This chapter addresses and defends a growing trend in the application of Assessment Centers as a management development strategy for adult learning and describes how innovations in technology can elevate a traditional assessment center design to allow for a comprehensive blended learning approach that supports multiple styles of learning and learners. Drawing on best practices, the chapter offers a guideline for designing and implementing an assessment center. The chapter also examines innovations in technology-enhanced assessment centers (TEACs) as a way to add to the fidelity and impact of an assessment center experience. The chapter includes client case studies and directions for practice and research.
Maribeth Gettinger, Clarissa J. Schienebeck, Stephanie Seigel, and Laura J. Vollmer
The quality of classroom environments is a central variable in determining behavioral and learning outcomes of students. This chapter reviews learning environment research that links measurable dimensions of teaching and classroom environments to student performance, including effective teaching behaviors, classroom management, teacher–student relationships, academic learning time, emotional climate and support, grouping format, class size, and physical characteristics. A review of three approaches to assessing these dimensions of classroom environments is provided; specifically, classroom observations, classroom environment surveys, and eco-behavioral assessment. Finally, implications for classroom practice and future directions for research are presented.
Robert J. Volpe and Sandra M. Chafouleas
Given the considerable amount of research attention that has been provided to externalizing behavioral deficits, a wide array of assessment methodologies is available to reliably assess core features. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a guide for the assessment of externalizing behavior problems. The chapter begins with an overview of externalizing problems, with focus on disorders of attention and disruption. Discussion of relevant disorders is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Edition, text revision; DSM-IV-TR) and special education law. Next, a five-phase model is presented for school-based assessment of externalizing problems that addresses issues of classification (screening, multimethod assessment, interpretation of results) as well as design and evaluation of the treatment plan.
Randy W. Kamphaus and Kristen L. Mays
The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the assessment of internalizing problems in children and adolescents. The chapter consists of three sections. The first section summarizes the categorical and dimensional systems used to classify social and emotional problems in youth. The second section discusses a variety of assessment techniques (e.g., structured and semistructured interviews and behavioral rating scales) that can be used to evaluate internalizing problems. This section also provides descriptions of several assessment measures including the DISC-IV, K-SADS-PL, ASEBA, BASC-2, BYI-II, CDI, RCMAS-2, and STAIC. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion of several practical issues to consider when evaluating the emotional and behavioral status of youth.
The study of beliefs is important because in addition to values, norms, and personality, beliefs are a major antecedent of social behaviours. This article provides an update of the study of beliefs in Chinese culture by integrating research that has emerged later on. The two major objectives of this article are to consolidate what has been known about beliefs in Chinese culture, and to identify fruitful directions for future research on this important topic. Chinese culture is rich in the variety and quantity of traditional beliefs because of its long history, but, as this article states, only a few of these rich belief constellations have been explored by psychologists. The article then reviews a few major traditional beliefs deemed important for future psychological research. However it states that there are still many gaps in the knowledge about beliefs among Chinese and how they function to influence social behaviours.
Mayer Connie and C. Tane Akamatsu
Bilingual approaches in the education of deaf students have been in place for almost three decades and debate continues as to the merits of these programs, particularly with respect to the relationship between bilingualism and the development of text-based literacy. This chapter is divided into three parts. The first section examines the theoretical frameworks which that underpin the move to bilingual models of education for deaf students with a particular emphasis on the expectations with respect to the development of literacy. References are made to other bilingual contexts in which the research on this point has been more extensive and exhaustive. This is followed by a review of the literature within the context of deaf education beginning with the earliest studies from the 1980’s. The chapter concludes with a summary and synthesis of what has been learned from the research to date and positions this review in the context of the outcomes suggested by the theory and by the research from other bilingual settings. Suggestions are made and questions posed as to directions for future study and research.
Richard P. Keeling, Jennifer Stevens Dickson, and Trey Avery
Learning at any age is neurobiological: a process occurring through alterations in the microscopic structure and functioning of the brain. The inputs, processes, and outputs of learning are brain functions. Learning can be visualized, located, and measured through brain imaging techniques that depend methodologically on the biological nature of perception, memory, and learning. The stages of cognitive development, which represent the cumulative neurobiological effects of many interactions between persons and the world around them, are generated by multitudes of changes in cells, circuits, and networks of the brain. There is no mind without brain; the experiences of consciousness, thinking, learning, and memory are physical expressions of the work of the brain. The state of mind/brain is a major determinant of a learner’s readiness to learn; recognizing the oneness of mind and brain—and therefore of mind and body—should cause reassessment of many structures, policies, and practices in education.
Joseph W. McDonnell
This chapter explores the connection between liberal and professional education. It suggests ways to infuse broader learning objectives into business curricula as a foundation for lifelong learning and practice. Drawing on the liberal art of rhetoric, the chapter shows the use of Plato’s dialogue, the Gorgias, in an MBA class as a case study on ethical leadership. Rhetoric teaches leaders to listen and adjust to various constituencies and to develop pragmatic and persuasive policies that benefit both the organization and the community. Through such pedagogical methods and content, business schools can raise larger issues and provide students with ways to think critically, assisting the next generation of business executives to develop their moral characters and align their behaviors and decisions with justice rather than personal advantage.
Challenging Gifted and Talented Learners with a Continuum of Research-Based Interventions Strategies
Sally M. Reis and Joseph S. Renzulli
An overview of definitions of giftedness, special populations of gifted and talented children, methods of identification, and a continuum of services are summarized in this chapter. These services include organizational strategies (such as instructional grouping options), instructional strategies (such as acceleration and enrichment options), and a variety of talent development opportunities that should be included in a continuum of services that will engage and challenge all gifted and talented students. Also included in this chapter are some social and emotional challenges that may affect gifted and high potential children, such as the potential underachievement of children who do not encounter sufficient challenge in school. The chapter ends with a summary of research about the effectiveness of grouping, instructional, and talent development strategies, as well as recommendations for the creation of a continuum of services in each school district that will challenge and engage all students.