Christian Mühl, Dirk Heylen, and Anton Nijholt
This chapter is from the forthcoming The Oxford Handbook of Affective Computing edited by Rafael Calvo, Sidney K. D'Mello, Jonathan Gratch, and Arvid Kappas. The brain is involved in the registration, evaluation, and representation of emotional events and in the subsequent planning and execution of appropriate actions. Novel interface technologies—so-called affective brain-computer interfaces (aBCI)—can use this rich neural information, occurring in response to affective stimulation, for the detection of the user’s affective state. This chapter gives an overview of the promises and challenges that arise from the possibility of neurophysiology-based affect detection, with a special focus on electrophysiological signals. After outlining the potential of aBCI relative to other sensing modalities, the reader is introduced to the neurophysiological and neurotechnological background of this interface technology. Potential application scenarios are situated in a general framework of brain-computer interfaces. Finally, the main scientific and technological challenges that have yet to be solved on the way toward reliable affective brain-computer interfaces are discussed.
The first part of the chapter describes effects of motivation on attention at the behavioural and physiological levels. For example, reward increases detection sensitivity (dprime) in both endogenous attention and exogenous attention tasks, enhances stimulus coding, and influences the filtering of task-irrelevant stimuli. These recent findings are surprising insofar as traditional psychological models have described motivation as a fairly unspecific ‘force’. The results reviewed are far from global. Instead they reflect specific mechanisms that are manifested selectively both at behavioural and neural levels. The second part of the chapter describes the role of attention when emotion-laden visual stimuli are processed. When one considers the bulk of the evidence, emotional processing is revealed to be capacity-limited. Yet, emotional processing is prioritized relative to that of neutral items.
Cognitive deficits play a central role in recovery and determining functional outcome in neurological and psychiatric conditions. New techniques of cognitive rehabilitation address the issue of sustenance and generalizability of improved cognitive functions to activities of daily living. Research in the field of music and neuroscience has contributed immensely towards better understanding of neural correlates of music perception and cognition and music production. Neurologic music therapy (NMT) has emerged as a neuroscientific based systematic method to improve sensorimotor, language, cognition, and affective domains of functioning. The two interrelated dynamic models, the “Rational Scientific Mediating Model” and the “Transformational Design Model” of NMT are discussed in comparison with principles of cognitive remediation. An increase in research examining the role of music-based intervention to target cognition and emotion has been initiated. NMT has facilitated the field of music therapy from a predominantly social science model to a neuroscientific model based technique.
Andrew H. Kemp, Jonathan Krygier, and Eddie Harmon-Jones
This chapter is from the forthcoming The Oxford Handbook of Affective Computing edited by Rafael Calvo, Sidney K. D'Mello, Jonathan Gratch, and Arvid Kappas. Emotion is often defined as a multicomponent response to a significant stimulus characterized by brain and body arousal and a subjective feeling state, eliciting a tendency toward motivated action. This chapter reviews the neuroscience of emotion, especially highlighting a psychological constructionist approach that considers certain events to result from the interplay of basic neurophysiological operations not specific to emotion. The authors adopt an embodied cognition perspective, highlighting the importance of the whole body—not just the brain—to better understand the biological basis of emotion and drawing on influential theories, including Polyvagal Theory and the Somatic Marker Hypothesis, which emphasize the importance of bidirectional communication between viscera and brain, and the impact of visceral responses on subjective feeling state and decision making, respectively. Embodied cognition has important implications for understanding emotion, and the authors emphasise the need for further research that draws on affective computing principles and focuses on objective measures of body and brain to further elucidate the specificity of different emotional states.