Phillip R. Shaver and Mario Mikulincer
Amori Yee Mikami
Norman B. Schmidt
Jessica L. Lakin and Tanya L. Chartrand
Megan L. Knowles
Jeff Schimel and Jeff Greenberg
Kelly C. Allison and David B. Sarwer
Body image disturbances are common among women in the general population. Less is known about their prevalence and impact during pregnancy. This chapter examines the history of body image theory and research. Next, we examine issues related to body image during pregnancy, such as pregravid weight, gestational weight gain, and the unique ways women think about the changes to their body during pregnancy. The role of physical activity, mood, and eating disorders in relation to peripartum body image disturbance is also discussed. Finally, assessment of body image disturbance and existing treatments are presented. Future research is needed to develop peripartum-specific body image assessment tools and to assess the impact of psychosocial interventions during and after pregnancy on body image dissatisfaction.
Sally S. Dickerson and Peggy M. Zoccola
David A. Sbarra and Ashley E. Mason
Kimberly A. Van Orden and Thomas E. Joiner Jr.
Michael S. North and Susan T. Fiske
C. Nathan DeWall
Leanne K. Knobloch and Sandra Metts
People's close relationships provide the backdrop for some of their most intensely poignant and conventionally routine experiences of emotion. Although contemporary theories of emotion are both robust and sophisticated, scholars of close relationships have not yet capitalized on the wealth of theorizing that exists. The goal of this chapter is to integrate theories of emotion with scholarship on people's experiences of emotion within close relationships. We begin by describing four theoretical perspectives on emotion (discrete emotions models, appraisal theories, dimensional models, and prototype approaches) and two theories of close relationships that shed light on emotion (attachment theory and the emotion-in-relationships model). We then summarize current trends in research on eight emotions that are especially pertinent to close relationships (anger, sadness, fear, happiness, gratitude, jealousy, hurt, and forgiveness). We conclude by offering our recommendations for additional work in this area.