Changmin Duan, Sarah Knox, and Clara E. Hill
Advice giving in psychotherapy has been an area of interest for theorists and practitioners for a long time. However, clear and distinct answers to questions concerning the role of advice in client outcomes have not been as available as one would expect. This state of art may be related to discrepant theoretical positions and the lack of consistent empirical evidence. This chapter argues that some evidence does support advice giving in psychotherapy, depending on the cultural and social context as well as on client and therapist variables. This chapter reviews the literature, recommends a specific model for advice giving, and outlines future research directions.
Lyn M. Van Swol, Jihyun Esther Paik, and Andrew Prahl
This chapter examines the psychology of advice recipients, focusing on research predominantly conducted using the Judge Advisor System, in which a participant “judge” receives advice from one or more advisors but has ultimate responsibility for making the decision. First, it reviews methods of typical Judge Advisor System experiments. Next, it surveys the research to explore why decision makers often do not seek out advice, focusing on the costs of advice and decision-maker overconfidence. It then examines why decision makers underutilize the advice they receive due to factors like confirmation bias, egocentric discounting, and power. In addition, factors that increase the utilization of advice, such as trust, advisor confidence, and advisor expertise, are considered. Finally, the influence of advice-recipient power and reception to computerized advice are examined in depth. Finally, advice to decision makers about how to seek and utilize advice to make better decisions is provided.