Sanja Kutnjak Ivković
This article is organized as follows. Section I focuses on the concept of police legitimacy, exploring it from the police agency perspective (i.e., why people obey the authority), and presents the empirical findings on legitimacy. Section II discusses what happens when police officers cross the line that separates legitimate and illegitimate conduct. Section III analyzes traditional and novel responses to the situations in which policing went wrong, including internal mechanisms (e.g., internal affairs, early warning systems), external mechanisms (e.g., criminal courts, independent commissions), and mixed mechanisms of control and accountability (e.g., accreditation, citizen reviews). Section IV reflects on the key issues and provides ideas for future research.
This article reviews the literature inspired by Ayres and Braithwaite’s (1992b)Responsive Regulation. It discusses the theoretical underpinnings of the responsive regulation approach, as well as its theoretical and policy contributions. After outlining the aspects of responsive regulation that have been studied extensively, special attention is paid to those aspects of the original theory that remain neglected. In addition to theoretical inattention, it is clear that agencies in the United States have failed to formally adopt this regulatory strategy—reasons for this are discussed. The article also reviews strengths and weakness of the original formulation, noting attempts to revise and improve it in recent years. To conclude, it evaluates the current state ofResponsive Regulationand offers suggestions for future research.