This article presents a survey of research in farming and agriculture. It discusses the extent the economy was open that involved export and import. It then demonstrates how the local agriculture was adapted into the structure of the economy, and assesses the impact of the agrarian structure on agricultural variety. It also studies the influence Jewish religion might have had on agricultural practices in Roman Palestine. Finally, the article considers how different the agrarian economy of Roman Palestine was from the surrounding provinces.
This article deals with Jewish arts and crafts and manufacture and production. It first introduces the sources used to shed more light on the crafts, manufacture, and production industries in Roman Palestine. It then proceeds to look at various forms of arts and crafts in the province. The next section examines food processing, specifically wine and olive oil production.
This article discusses the garments that were worn by the Jews in Israel during the Graeco-Roman period. The discussion uses available material and literary sources, and tries to determine if the Jews wore different clothing from their Roman and Greek contemporaries.
This article takes a look at the available infrastructures in Roman provinces. It first distinguishes the military structures, non-military structures, and civilian structures. It looks at a chronological framework that starts with Pompey's conquest of Judea in 63
This article examines the literary evidence available on jewellery from Jewish Roman antiquity. It defines jewellery as objects of personal adornment, and identifies the different categories in the study of jewellery. The first section looks at past scholarship on ancient jewellery, and then presents the literary evidence of jewellery in the Jewish sources during the late second temple period. It also discusses the literary evidence of jewellery in rabbinic literature.
This article is concerned with social-anthropological approaches to literacy and orality. It tries to determine the extent cultural studies of orality in other societies can throw light on ancient Jewish literary, and explains how the studies of orality have contributed to the academic debate on the transmission of the Mishnah. It also assesses past studies on literacy and orality and presents some of the best ways to evaluate the available sources. The social contexts where writing and/or oral communication are used and the role of professional scribes are studied.
The Byzantine Empire gradually emerged as a powerful independent state during c.250-518. The precise moment of the foundation of this state could not be ascertained. When Constantine I established the new city of Constantinople in 330, he ruled the entire Roman Empire, East and West. The empire was partitioned among his sons upon his death, only to be reunited again for a short period in 350 and 392 before being partitioned for the last time in 395 between the sons of Theodosios I. After the western Roman emperor, Romulus Augustulus, was overthrown in 476 with no successor, the eastern Roman Empire began to evolve its own institutions, rituals, and style of government. This article outlines the political history of Byzantium c.250-518, starting with the eastern Roman Empire before the reign of Constantine before proceeding with the dynasty of Constantine I (306-63); the rise to power of Jovian, Valentinian, and Valens (363-78); the dynasty of Theodosios (379-450); and the reigns of various emperors from Marcian to Anastasios (450-518).
This article shows how the people in Roman-Byzantine Palestine understood issues of group affiliation and identity. It starts with a review of the scholarship on the demography of Palestinian Jews. It presents the demography of Palestinian Jews, and studies the population numbers that were recorded in ancient sources. In the next section, the discussion focuses on population growth and the Jewish settlements in Palestine. It also considers the regional concentration of the Jews, the problems of religious separation, and the changes that occurred during the Byzantine period.
This article studies trade, commerce, and consumption in Jewish Roman Palestine. It first defines these concepts, and then looks at different methodological approaches and problems. The last section presents a detailed discussion of the general considerations connected to markets and commerce.
Jürgen K. Zangenberg and Dianne van de Zande
This article studies the urbanization of Palestine. It looks at the start of urbanization in Israel, followed by the mechanisms of urbanization during the Hellenistic period. Some of these mechanisms were administrative organization and urban planning. It studies urbanization under indigenous Jewish rulers and during the Roman period. The article concludes with a discussion of the relationship and dependency between the city and the countryside, as well as the different attitudes towards the urban cities.
Ann E. Killebrew
This article discusses daily life in Jewish villages in Roman Palestine. In surveys rural Jewish settlement patterns and demography from the Roman to Byzantine periods. It explores the physical features of the Jewish village and the material culture of daily life, before it considers the impact of the rural Jewish settlements on the economic fabric of Roman Palestine.