This article examines private and public education in Hellenistic and Roman times. It first describes education in Graeco-Roman society, and then moves on to discuss Jewish primary education. The next section focuses on the higher education of the Jews, before it finally discusses Jewish participation in Graeco-Roman education. The article also considers professional education and women's education in Roman Palestine.
The term ‘rhetoric’ can be profitably approached in somewhat different ways depending on whether one adopts a classical or modern frame of reference. As for the former frame, the formal definition of rhetoric was highly contested in antiquity. The problems, however, have mostly to do with attempts to write into those definitions positions on issues that are not clearly definitional (for example, the ethics or the learnability of persuasive speech). This article uses ‘rhetoric’ in contrast to ‘oratory’. Oratory is the practice of public speaking; rhetoric comprises the various theories – instructional, evaluative, taxonomic, and so on – overtly devised to direct, evaluate, and/or shape oratory (though the actual importance of rhetoric extends beyond the world of oratory). Most of the ancient texts may be divided into two categories: manuals of instruction and works that include a meta-rhetorical component, touching on the philosophy and/or sociology of rhetoric and oratory. The article examines rhetoric as the art of decorum and discusses attempts to naturalise terms that are important for certain modern modes of analysis, including gender, class, and nationality.
Robert A. Kaster
Most examples of what we consider Roman scholarship could no more claim ‘literary’ status than their modern counterparts: ‘sub-literary’ or (more neutrally) ‘non-literary’ is the label most aptly applied to both. This article deals with scholarship that comprises writings meant to preserve or elucidate Roman cultural memory in non-narrative, non-mimetic form, with a commitment to the truth. In sketching the origins of Roman grammatica – the scholarly study, and teaching, of language and literature – the biographer Suetonius famously delivers some hard-and-fast judgements. These judgements are neither wholly reliable (especially where the direct influence of Crates is concerned) nor entirely fair; in particular, they rather understate the skill and literary sophistication that both Livius Andronicus and Ennius brought to their own work. On the other hand, most of the men whose lives Suetonius recounts as teachers and scholars passed through slavery, a fact that significantly distinguishes the figures we meet at Rome from their counterparts in Greek culture.