Eivind Heldaas Seland
This chapter reviews the evidence, nature, and development of maritime contacts in the Red Sea and from the Red Sea into the western Indian Ocean from the Neolithic until the start of the Islamic period, c. 4000 BCE–700 CE. In addition to summarizing and highlighting recent archaeological research and ongoing scholarly debates, emphasis is placed on identifying and explaining periods of intensified as well as reduced interaction, and on the relationship between internal Red Sea dynamics and contacts with the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean worlds in light of climate, natural environment, hinterland interest, and a changing geopolitical situation.
This article discusses the nature of manufacture, trade, and the economy in Egypt during the first three centuries of Roman rule. The human element of trade and manufacture is considered here, in combination with an overview of the organization of labour and production. The article also examines the markets within and beyond the province, which affected the movement of information, people, and goods.