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Anthropomorphic Clay Figurines of the Jomon Period of Japan  

Koji Mizoguchi

Print publication date:
Apr 2017
Online publication date:
Jun 2017
This chapter charts the trajectory of change of Jomon period clay anthropomorphic figurines in the Japanese archipelago. The earliest specimens embodied the perception of the body and ... More

The Army, Wars, and Military Arts during the Warring States Period  

Albert Galvany

Print publication date:
Jan 2021
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
This chapter provides a comprehensive discussion about the transformation of warfare in the Warring States period, when the previous aristocratic way of managing military affairs ... More

The Artistic Revolution in the Warring States Period  

Jie Shi

Print publication date:
Jan 2021
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
This chapter introduces the new developments of Chinese art during the Warring States period (475–221 bce) by surveying major artistic categories such as cities, tombs, architecture, ritual ... More

Bells and Music in the Zhou  

Scott Cook

Print publication date:
Jan 2021
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
This chapter describes the nature and scope of musical practice and performance during Zhou-dynasty China and the roles that music was thought to play in promoting political stability and ... More

Bronze Age Mongolia  

Jean-Luc Houle

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
This article discusses the Bronze Age in Mongolia, a period when pastoralism, mobility, and interaction between regional communities increased dramatically. It also corresponds to the ... More

Bronze Vessels: Style, Assemblages, and Innovations of the Western Zhou Period  

Yan Sun

Print publication date:
Jan 2021
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
This chapter, by employing securely dated vessels, discusses stylistic characteristics of three phases of Western Zhou bronzes in the Zhou metropolitan centers in the Wei River Valley in ... More

The Bronze-Casting Revolution and the Ritual Vessel Set  

Hong Xu and Yu Liu

Print publication date:
Jan 2021
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
This chapter analyzes bronze-casting technology, noting that the Erlitou phase is transitional rather than representative of the beginning of bronze-casting. Through analysis of the samples ... More

Change and Continuity at the Intersection of Received History and the Material Record during the Warring States Period  

Charles Sanft

Print publication date:
Jan 2021
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
This chapter concentrates on archaeologically recovered paleographic and material culture remaining from the pre-imperial and early imperial periods in China. One part of the chapter treats ... More

Chu Religion and Art  

John S. Major and Elizabeth Childs-Johnson

Print publication date:
Jan 2021
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
Although the origins of Chu are still unclear, by the Western Zhou period Chu was known as a polity in the mid–Han River Valley, participating in the Zhou multistate system and evolving ... More

Confucius, Mencius, and Their Daoist-Legalist Critics  

Moss Roberts

Print publication date:
Jan 2021
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
Warring Kingdoms thought divides into a humanist tradition (Analects and Mencius), a naturalist tradition (Daoism), and an institutional tradition (Mohism and Legalism). The humanist ... More

The Cultural and Historical Setting of the Shang  

Jonathan Smith and Yuzhou Fan

Print publication date:
Jan 2021
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
This chapter offers a basic historiographical overview of the Shang period and polity, with focus on the roles that general archaeological, specifically inscriptional, and received textual ... More

Cultures and Styles of Art during the Springs and Autumns Period  

Xiaolong Wu

Print publication date:
Jan 2021
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
This chapter surveys the major archaeological discoveries of the Chunqiu (Springs and Autumns) period, which belongs to the first half of the Eastern Zhou period (770–256 bce), and includes ... More

Early and Middle Shang Periods  

Guoding Song

Print publication date:
Jan 2021
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
This chapter analyzes the archaeological data documenting early and middle Shang cities and sites (Figure 1). The early Shang cities include Zhengzhou Shang City, Yanshi Shang City, Yuanqu ... More

Historical Background during the Springs and Autumns Period  

Yuri Pines

Print publication date:
Jan 2021
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
This chapter explores the political and social order of the aristocratic Springs and Autumns period. It analyzes the formation of the multistate system in the wake of the weakening of the ... More

Historiography, Thought, and Intellectual Development during the Springs and Autumns Period  

Yuri Pines

Print publication date:
Jan 2021
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
This chapter explores the historiography and political thought of the Springs and Autumns period. It analyzes major historical texts from the period—the Springs and Autumns Annals (Chunqiu) ... More

Institutional Reforms and Reformers during the Warring States Period  

Yuri Pines

Print publication date:
Jan 2021
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
This chapter explores the transformation of the Warring States–period polities from loose aristocratic entities into centralized bureaucratic states. It focuses primarily on the reforms in ... More

Introduction and Background to The Oxford Handbook on Early China  

Elizabeth Childs-Johnson

Print publication date:
Jan 2021
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
The volume, The Oxford Handbook on Early China, offers a rich assembly of pioneering research on pre-imperial China. The study is a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach focused on the ... More

Introduction of domestic animals to the Japanese archipelago  

Hitomi Hongo

Print publication date:
Mar 2017
Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Zooarchaeological and molecular biological studies indicate that all domestic animals found in Japan were introduced and local domestication of wild boar and wolf is unlikely. Timing of ... More

Introduction to the Xia Period: Definitions, Themes, and Debate  

Hong Xu

Print publication date:
Jan 2021
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
This chapter introduces Erlitou as the first dynasty of the Bronze Age by reviewing differing opinions and the basis for identifying the Erlitou Culture as that of Xia, ca. 2100–1600 bce. ... More

Iron Technology and Its Regional Development during the Eastern Zhou Period  

Wengcheong Lam

Print publication date:
Jan 2021
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
The appearance of the cast iron industry was one of the most technological innovations in ancient China. Nonetheless, how iron technology shaped the historical development during this ... More

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