Thomas M. Hunt
Performance enhancement in sport has a long and controversial history. Although several organizations enacted prohibitions on the subject of doping prior to the Second World War, public scrutiny on the issue remained relatively light until the second half of the twentieth century. Beginning in the 1960s, officials passed a number of regulatory measures with the twin goals of protecting the health of athletes and ensuring the fairness of competitions. Due partially to the effects of Cold War political rivalries, the use of drugs by athletes nevertheless remained widespread in the world of sport. This policy situation changed dramatically with the end of the superpower conflict in 1991, however. The following decade was marked by increasingly vociferous calls for reform from outside the international governance structure for sport. In February of 1999, regulatory powers over the subject were centralized in a new organization called the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).