Public discourse about food generally consists of nutritional guides, ethical philosophies, labeling schemes, and food industry trends, all of which try to offer often competing solutions to consumers seeking to know more about what is good to eat. As this anxiety about eating right continues to grow, what consumers really need is a more informed, educated, and critical relationship to dietary health and dietary advice, rather than more information about the nutritional content of food or where it comes from. This article first provides a brief overview of the emerging critical nutrition studies before analyzing the history and historiography of nutrition and dietary health in the United States since the late nineteenth century. It argues that critical nutrition studies as a discipline provide the foundation for a new "critical dietary literacy," and thus can help us rethink contemporary discourses of food and health.
This article discusses the role played by medicine and the medical sciences in shaping and making sense of early modern witchcraft. It suggests that despite the interest of members of the healing arts in witchcraft and their engagement in both practical and theoretical aspects of the subject, major historical studies of the relationship between medicine and witchcraft are thin on the ground. There have been few case studies of individual physicians in this respect and only fleeting accounts of the attitude of medical practitioners as a whole to the phenomenon of witchcraft. The answer to this may lie in the tendency of historians to conflate the contribution of doctors to the witchcraft debate with that of scientists or natural philosophers given that the former, particularly those trained at universities, frequently shared a similar education and approach to nature and were themselves often to be found at the forefront of scientific advance in the early modern period.
Thomas M. Hunt
Performance enhancement in sport has a long and controversial history. Although several organizations enacted prohibitions on the subject of doping prior to the Second World War, public scrutiny on the issue remained relatively light until the second half of the twentieth century. Beginning in the 1960s, officials passed a number of regulatory measures with the twin goals of protecting the health of athletes and ensuring the fairness of competitions. Due partially to the effects of Cold War political rivalries, the use of drugs by athletes nevertheless remained widespread in the world of sport. This policy situation changed dramatically with the end of the superpower conflict in 1991, however. The following decade was marked by increasingly vociferous calls for reform from outside the international governance structure for sport. In February of 1999, regulatory powers over the subject were centralized in a new organization called the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).