With regards to global trade, where new technologies impact both on what is traded and how, this chapter sketches the current regulatory landscape and projects the implications of emerging technologies for future regulatory approaches. While the regulation of technology mainly rests with domestic law, it is international trade law that addresses problems of regulatory diversity, overcomes unnecessary barriers to international trade and investment, and articulates common standards. Apart from general principles of non-discrimination and transparency, technology is particularly addressed by rules of intellectual property protection and by technical regulations and standards for industrial and nutritional products. For international trade law to respond to the challenges of legitimacy and democratic accountability, there need to be new approaches to regulatory cooperation and coherence, operating within a proper framework of multi-level governance that harnesses the process of globalization which is much driven by technological advances.
Trade, Commerce, and Employment: The Evolution of the Form and Regulation of the Employment Relationship in Response to the New Information Technology
Kenneth G. Dau-Schmidt
The technology of production shapes the employment relationship and important issues in its regulation. The new information technology has transformed the organization of production replacing large vertically organized firms governed by the internal labour market with horizontally organized firms governed by a global labour market. These changes require policymakers to broaden the definitions of ‘employee’, ‘employer’, and ‘appropriate bargaining unit’ in the regulation of employment and find ways to incorporate the new information technology into that regulation. As profound as these changes have been, the speedy evolution of information technology and the development of artificial intelligence promise even greater changes in the future. Future regulation will require not only a more expanded notion of the employment relationship, but also increased education and retraining programmes, benefit programmes tied to citizenship rather than employment, increased regulation, subsidy of retirement programmes, and perhaps even a basic income programme.