Giancarlo Frosio and Martin Husovec
This chapter summarizes recent developments in intermediary liability theory with special emphasis on the emergence of voluntary measures and private ordering. Looking at the legal liability rules always tells only half of a story. Legal rules are often only basic expectations which are further developed through market transactions, business decisions, and political pressure. Therefore, the real responsibility landscape is equally determined by a mixture of voluntary agreements, self-regulation, corporate social responsibility, and ad hoc deal-making. Accountability schemes can differ significantly, ranging from legal entitlements to request assistance in enforcement to entirely voluntary private-ordering schemes. This chapter provides a mapping of these basic approaches in order to illustrate the richness and trade-offs associated with such measures. Miscellaneous policy and enforcement tools, such as monitoring and filtering, graduated response, payment blockades and follow-the-money strategies, private denial of service (DNS) content regulation, and online search manipulation, are discussed to complement the typical legal liability view of the regulation of intermediaries. The discussion of these enforcement strategies will be framed within the investigation of notions such as market and private ordering, corporate social responsibility, assistance in enforcement of a innocent third party made accountable although not liable and public deal-making.
The reach of privately ordered online content regulation is wide and deepening. It is deepening with reference to the internet’s protocol stack, migrating downward from the application layer into the network’s technical infrastructure, specifically, the Domain Name System (DNS). This chapter explores the recent expansion of intellectual property enforcement in the DNS, with a focus on associated due process and expressive harms. It begins with a technical explanation of the operation and governance of the DNS. It goes on to discuss existing and proposed alternative dispute resolution (ADR) regimes for resolving intellectual property complaints involving domain names. In doing so, it compares the long-running Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) for adjudicating trademark cybersquatting claims to newer ADR programmes targeting copyright infringement on websites underlying domain names.
Alessandro Cogo and Marco Ricolfi
In recent years, the number of countries which have opted for the involvement of administrative bodies in the enforcement of copyright has increased as a result of the remarkable difficulties that the enforcement of copyright faces in a digital environment. This chapter describes first the European landscape of administrative bodies entrusted with the enforcement of copyright infringement online, with special emphasis on Greece, Italy, and Spain. Secondly, the chapter considers the legal framework where these administrative bodies operate with emphasis on the TRIPs Agreement, EU law, and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. Thirdly, the chapter looks into the essential features of these administrative enforcement systems, including procedural rules, allocation of costs, remedies, transparency, and safeguards against abuse. Finally, the chapter elaborates on the implementation of the AGCOM Regulation in practice, providing data from the case law developed so far.
There is an ongoing move towards privatization of law enforcement online through algorithmic tools. This chapter discusses algorithmic accountability and its relevance for intermediary liability and human rights. First, the chapter looks into open issues related to the specific nature of accountability within the context of algorithmic accountability, especially regarding ‘to whom’ and ‘for what’ algorithms should be accountable. In doing so, the chapter considers algorithmic accountability to users, listing a number of technical, organizational, and regulatory challenges to make accountability possible in ensuring access to data. Considering intermediary liability and algorithmic accountability more closely, the chapter describes specific provisions for ensuring algorithmic accountability by online intermediaries and platforms, contextualizing them within a proposal in which adherence to algorithmic accountability would lower liability of intermediaries and contribute to more effectively ensuring compliance with human rights.
This chapter examines the legitimacy of utilizing human biomedical interventions for regulatory purposes, drawing on regulatory governance scholarship, bioethical debates about human enhancement, and constitutional scholarship concerning fundamental rights. It considers whether the use of biomedical techniques to pursue regulatory and other public policy purposes is ethically equivalent to the use of traditional techniques that target the design of the social environment, including the alleged ethical ‘parity’ between social and biological interventions into the human mind. It argues when contemplating these techniques, we must consider who is seeking to utilize them, for whom, for what purpose, for whose benefit, and at what cost (and to whom). In wrestling with these questions, we must also attend to the social meanings associated with particular ends–means relationships, what is it that we value in human nature, and different understanding of ideas of human flourishing and the good life.
Audience Constructions, Reputations, and Emerging Media Technologies: New Issues of Legal and Social Policy
Nora A. Draper and Joseph Turow
This chapter traces how changes in media and surveillance technologies have influenced the strategies producers have for constructing audiences. The largely unregulated practices of information gathering that inform the measurement and evaluation of audiences have consequences for how individuals are viewed by media producers and, consequently, for how they view themselves. Recent technological advances have increased the specificity with which advertisers target audiences—moving from the classification of audience groups based on shared characteristics to the personalization of commercial media content for individuals. To assist in the personalization of content, media producers and advertisers use interactive technologies to enlist individuals in the construction of their own consumer reputations. Industry discourse frames the resulting personalization as empowering for individuals who are given a hand in crafting their media universe; however, these strategies are more likely to create further disparity among those who media institutions do and do not view as valuable.
Amber Marks, Ben Bowling, and Colman Keenan
This chapter examines how forensic science and technology are reshaping crime investigation, prosecution, and the administration of criminal justice. It highlights the profound effect of new scientific techniques, data collection devices, and mathematical analysis on the traditional criminal justice system. These blur procedural boundaries that have hitherto been central, while automating and procedurally compressing the entire criminal justice process. Technological innovation has also resulted in mass surveillance and eroded ‘double jeopardy’ protections due to scientific advances that enable the revisiting of conclusions reached long ago. These innovations point towards a system of ‘automatic justice’ that minimizes human agency and undercut traditional due process safeguards that have hitherto been central to the criminal justice model. To rebalance the relationship between state and citizen in a system of automatic criminal justice, we may need to accept the limitations of the existing criminal procedure framework and deploy privacy and data protection law.
Christophe Geiger and Elena Izyumenko
In the past few years, the practice of enforcing intellectual property by ordering internet access providers to block infringing websites has been rapidly growing, especially in Europe. European Courts, such as the CJEU and ECtHR, advance several factors to inform—from the perspective of different fundamental rights—the website-blocking practices for copyright enforcement in Europe. This chapter provides an overview of these factors, starting with the freedom of expression framework for website blocking and the rather revolutionary, at least for the European judiciary, concept of user rights that has being construed under it. It then proceeds to discuss the limits of intermediaries’ involvement in digital enforcement dictated by the EU-specific freedom to conduct a business. The required efficacy of the blocking resulting from the human right to property framework for intellectual property is also examined. Potential effects on the website-blocking practices of the recent EU copyright reform are then discussed before concluding.
The capture and long-term storage of carbon dioxide from power plants and other industrial installations may prove a key technology in climate change abatement strategies. Regulatory frameworks for carbon capture and storage (CCS) are now being developed in a number of jurisdictions. The European Union produced the first comprehensive legislation on the subject in 2009, which provides a compelling example of challenges associated with the design of regulation dealing with a novel technology. This chapter identifies three issues, each of which reflects aspects of regulatory legitimacy: the extent to which states within a federal or quasi-federal system should have the legal discretion to reject a technology; the way in which regulation provides for opportunities for public participation and engagement in issues concerning the new technology; and whether, and at what point, the state should assume responsibility for storage sites, given the long timescales necessary for secure storage.
This chapter explores some challenges that arise in respect of the regulation of human enhancement. It opens by advocating a definitional pluralism that acknowledges the existence of many concepts of human enhancement. These highlight different moral concerns about the application of genetic and cybernetic technologies to human brains and bodies. I identify one concept that is particularly effective at expressing the upsides of human enhancement. Another concept serves better to reveal enhancement’s downsides. I describe a further concept that reveals moral issues connected with great degrees of human enhancement. The chapter concludes with a discussion of attempts to regulate enhancement in elite sport. I defend the efforts of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) to keep artificial means of enhancement out of sport.
There are multiple forces that influence intermediary liability regulation in the People’s Republic of China (China). This chapter applies a holistic approach by analysing these individual forces to assess their influence on intermediary liability regulation in China. On the one hand, China’s draft E-Commerce Law raises the standard for knowledge before infringing information can be removed, while the many laws and regulations involved in censorship exclude the possibility of ignorance. On the other hand, there is case law, recently codified in guidelines for Beijing courts, which reinforces the duties of care. Moreover, this chapter connects discussions about the desirability of safe harbours and the degree of filtering requirements with the ongoing technological development of big data and artificial intelligence in China. In this context, the chapter also discusses self-regulation and pressure for online service providers to take on more responsibility in China.
Technological developments have complex, ambiguous and sometimes contradictory effects of on the institutions, norms and practices of citizenship. The chapter investigates the relationship between technology and citizenship by exploring the tensions between inclusion and emancipation, on the one hand, and exclusion and control, on the other hand. It discusses inclusionary and exclusionary aspects of developments in the areas of digital and biotechnologies in respect to access to legal status, political participation, and identity. It also examines the emancipatory potential of technologies at the level of citizenship practices and issues related to social and political control, which are triggered by increased and pervasive surveillance. The chapter suggests that the tensions between citizenship and technology are not inherent but rather derived from the circumstances in which technologies are adopted, the ways in which they are used, and the ongoing political struggles over citizenship.
Over the years, the discussion concerning the responsibilities of online service providers (OSPs) has gone from defining measures that OSPs should deploy to correct their market bias and ensure a pluralistic web, to the impact that OSPs have on the internet, on the flourishing of democratic values, and on societies at large. The debate spans different fields, from information and computer ethics, corporate social responsibilities, and business ethics, to computer-mediated communication, law, and public policy. Topics of analyses range from biases and skewing of information indexed by search engines, the protection of users’ privacy and security, to the impact of OSPs on democratic processes, and their duties with respect to human rights. This chapter investigates the ethical implications of intermediary liability. First, it describes the debate on the moral responsibilities of OSPs with respect to managing access to information and human rights. It then analyses the role and the nature of the responsibilities of OSPs in mature information societies. The chapter concludes its review by applying Floridi’s soft ethics to consider what responsibilities the civic role of OSPs entails and how they should discharge them.
The CoExistence of Copyright and Patent Laws to Protect InnovationA Case Study of 3D Printing in UK and Australian Law
Dinusha Mendis, Jane Nielsen, Diane Nicol, and Phoebe Li
The chapter considers the challenges faced by intellectual property (IP) laws, in particular copyright and patent laws, in responding to emerging technologies and innovation like 3D printing and scanning. It provides a brief introduction to 3D printing before moving to detailed analysis of relevant UK and Australian jurisprudence. Through this comparative analysis, the chapter explores whether copyright and patent laws can effectively protect innovation in this emerging technology, including consideration of both subsistence and infringement. The chapter suggests that 3D printing, like most other technologies, has a universal reach, yet subtle differences in the wording and interpretation of IP legislation between jurisdictions could lead to anomalies in levels of protection. It explores the possibility of a sui generis regime of IP protection for 3D printing, but submits that a nuanced reworking of existing regimes is, in the vast majority of circumstances, likely to be a sufficient response.
In conventional thinking, the promise of scientific progress gives automatic and unquestioned legitimacy to any new development in biotechnology. It is the nearest thing we have in a morally relativistic society to the concept of the common good. This chapter begins by examining a recent case study, so-called ‘mitochondrial transfer’ or three-person IVF, in which policymakers appeared to accept that this new technology should be effectively deregulated because that would serve UK national scientific progress and the national interest, despite serious unanswered concerns about its effectiveness and safety. The historical and philosophical underpinnings of the concept of the common good should make us more sceptical of the manner in which the concept can be perverted by particular interests. But there are also hopeful signs that the common good and the biomedical commons are being taken seriously in new models for governance of genomics and biotechnology more generally.
This chapter examines the transformative effect of the Internet and the rise of computer technology on international organization of communications. It begins by describing the liberalization of telecommunication services, which provides the essential point of departure for understanding the contemporary situation. It then identifies key international organizations involved in Internet governance. This survey of organizations is heavily biased towards entities that are involved in Internet operations and governance. The next section puts this collection of organizations into motion by describing their power struggles over the control of the Internet. Along the way, the chapter invokes several theories of organization, such as regime theory, principal-agent concepts of delegation, and theories of networked governance derived from transaction cost theory.
This chapter documents the extreme stresses that cyberspace applies to state law by examining how private international law, or conflict of laws, has responded to the online global world. This highlights both the penetration of globalization into the ‘private’ sphere and the strongly ‘public’ or collective political nature of much of the ‘private’ ordering through national law. The chapter shows that the nation state is asserting itself against the very phenomenon—globalization (through cyberspace)—that threatens its existence, and does not shy away from accepting the fragmentation of this global cyberspace along traditional political boundaries as collateral damage to its own survival. Yet, the frequent appeal to international human rights normativity in recent conflicts jurisprudence suggests an awareness of the unsuitability and illegitimacy of nation state law for the global online world.
Many aspects of contract law, developed before the age of computer technology, require re-evaluation in the twenty-first century. The following matters will be considered: the postal acceptance rule in the digital age; e-mail messages, in particular whether a name or initial typed in the message constitutes a 'signature' for all purposes, and whether the sender's name in the address does so; clicking on a box on a computer screen as manifestation of assent, and whether it satisfies express statutory or contractual requirements of 'signature'; sealed instruments in the computer age; use of a website as manifestation of assent ('browse-wrap' so-called); and, more generally, problems of standard form contracts, consumer protection, and unfair terms, exacerbated (I would argue), though not originated, by computer technology. Illustrations are drawn both from English and from Canadian law.
Crime, Security, and Information Communication Technologies: The Changing Cybersecurity Threat Landscape and its Implications for Regulation and Policing
David S. Wall
Networked digital technologies have transformed crime to a point that ‘cybercrime’ is here to stay. In the future, society will be forced to respond to a broad variety of networked crimes that will increase both the complexity of crime investigation and prevention, whilst also deepening the regulative challenges. As cybercrime has become an inescapable feature of the Internet landscape, constructive management and system development to mitigate cybercrime threats and harms are imperatives. This chapter explores the changing cybersecurity threat landscape and its implications for regulation and policing. It considers how networked and digital technologies have affected society and crime; it identifies how the cybersecurity threat and crime landscape have changed and considers how digital technologies affect our ability to regulate them. It also suggests how we might understand cybercrime before outlining both the technological developments that will drive future cybercrime and also the consequences of failing to respond to those changes.
Data mining technologies are increasingly prominent in development and aid initiatives in which context they may be understood to be doing work of global governance. This chapter explains how data mining may be so characterized and explores how this work may be compared to more conventional governance techniques and institutions. The chapter first provides an overview of some exemplary initiatives among international institutions in which data mining plays a crucial role. It then presents a playful, mundane analogy for a governance challenge—the sorting of a sock drawer—and compares a familiar law and policy approach and a data mining approach to this challenge. Lastly, it highlights what may be at stake in the practice of data mining on the global plane and associated shifts in regulatory technique, arguing for this practice to be regarded as a matter of broad-ranging public concern.