This article examines the complexities of employer-sponsored health insurance in the United States, along with its history and future prospects. It begins with an overview of the economic and legal factors that account for employers’ dominant position in the private health insurance market. It then considers a number of public policy problems that arise when insurance premiums are sheltered from income tax, such as the bias toward “first-dollar” coverage, which in turn causes higher medical spending. Finally, the article discusses future prospects for employment-based coverage, with emphasis on the provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and its mandated benefits, but also considering insurance exchanges and defined contributions, health reimbursement and savings accounts, preemption and self-insurance under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), and managed care liability.
Maureen A. Weston
This chapter examines the regulation of doping in U.S. professional and amateur sport, as well as the anti-doping regime for Olympic and international sport. Doping is generally defined as the presence, use or attempted use, trafficking, possession, or administration of any prohibited substance or method—as well as evading, refusing, or failing to submit to sample collection; to file whereabouts, information, or missed tests; or to tampering or attempting to tamper with any part of doping control. Doping in sport jeopardizes the health and safety of athletes, undermines the fairness and integrity of sport competition, and is outright cheating. The “war” against doping in sport is truly global, yet the regulatory schemes vary depending on the applicable sport governance authority. Doping in sport can be addressed effectively and fairly by looking at the practical, political, legal, and ethical concerns related to doping, doping control, fair process, privacy, and impact on sport.