Cornelis G. Roelofsen
This chapter presents an account of the role of arbitration and adjudication in international relations. It starts by looking at German/Swiss publicist Otfried Nippold, the author of a book on the prospects of arbitration, published at the eve of the second Hague Peace Conference. Then, it turns to the German/Dutch dispute of 1912–14 regarding the sovereignty over the Ems, an affair that illustrates the predicament inherent in the position of a legal adviser. The chapter attempts to deal with high-minded theory and public statements of governments as well as with the pedestrian tale of international adjudication as considered, practised, and developed by lawyers and diplomats. The discussion ends in 1945, when new institutions, the UN, and the International Court of Justice replaced those created at Versailles. A global order replaced an essentially European dispensation.