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The Allies  

Shlomo Aronson

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The Big Three Allies — Great Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union — ultimately brought vast military power to bear against the Third Reich, thus obtaining its unconditional ... More

Ancient Jewish and Early Christian Millennialism  

James D. Tabor

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Jan 2012
This article focuses on ancient Jewish and early Christian millennialism, which are found to be intrinsically inconsistent—there are no specific pointers towards marking the end of time; ... More

Anti-Semitism Research  

Wolfgang Benz

Print publication date:
Dec 2004
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Anti-Semitism refers to all anti-Jewish statements, tendencies, resentments, attitudes, and actions, regardless of whether they are religiously, racially, socially, or otherwise motivated. ... More

Antisemitism  

Richard S. Levy

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
This article addresses the phenomenon of organized antisemitism in the sixty years preceding the “Final Solution,” primarily in Germany but with comparisons to contemporaneous developments ... More

Art  

Dora Apel

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
Focusing on works by artists such as Rico Lebrun (1900–1964), George Segal (1924–2000), or Jerome Witkin (b. 1939), art critics and art historians have sometimes criticized too realistic ... More

Camps  

Karin Orth

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
This article focuses on the evolution of the Nazi concentration camp system. It discusses how this system evolved from a relatively small network of installations dedicated to punishing ... More

Catholics  

Kevin P. Spicer

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
Catholic and Protestant churches were on-lookers and sometimes worse, as their responses to persecution included forms of inaction that spilled over into complicity. Beginning with an ... More

Children  

Nicholas Stargardt

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
This article explores how historians, at least since the late 1980s, have subjected the experience of children to more searching analysis, without making their fate any less shocking. ... More

Christianity  

Stephen R. Haynes

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
Without Christianity and its centuries-long hostility toward Jews and Judaism, the Holocaust scarcely would have been possible. What difference has that recognition made to Christian ... More

Colonialism  

A. Dirk Moses

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
A long tradition of scholarship has posited colonialism and ‘racial imperialism’ as an enabler of the genocide against European Jewry, though often in imprecise ways. In response, critics ... More

Denial  

Deborah E. Lipstadt

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
Holocaust denial is the term used to describe the effort by a small but prolific group of writers to spread the notion that the Holocaust, the systematic annihilation of the European Jews ... More

Education  

Simone Schweber

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
This article examines Holocaust education, which now takes place across continents and grade-levels and through diverse programs and pedagogies. It argues that research about these efforts ... More

Ethical Implications of the Holocaust  

Michael Berenbaum

Print publication date:
Dec 2012
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
This chapter examines the difficulties the Holocaust posed and continues to raise for Jews, Jewish theology, and specifically Jewish ethics, identifying eight major commitments made by Jews ... More

Ethics  

John K. Roth

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
This article argues that without the overriding of moral sensibilities, if not the collapse or collaboration of ethical traditions, the Holocaust could not have happened. Although the Shoah ... More

Europe  

Jan‐Werner Müller

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
This article argues that the Holocaust took place within a distinct normative vision of Europe as a privileged embodiment of certain values, namely the Nazis' authoritarian and antisemitic ... More

Fascism  

Philip Morgan

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
Nazism is often distinguished from other European fascist movements, especially Italian fascism, on the grounds that racist antisemitism distinctively defined Nazi ideology and policy. ... More

Film  

Lawrence Baron

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
In the cinematic world, the representation of the Holocaust began with the Third Reich's propaganda films and the footage taken by the Allies at liberated concentration camps. In the early ... More

German Documents and Diaries  

Peter Fritzsche

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
This article shows that German government offices and private diarists and correspondents kept widely scattered but extensive records of the unfolding of the ‘Final Solution’. Anti-Jewish ... More

Germany  

Jeffrey Herf

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
This article examines the Holocaust's impact on postwar German politics, identity, and international conduct. It shows that a distinctive form of memory of the Holocaust arose in Germany ... More

Ghettos  

Martin C. Dean

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The Germans created more than 140 ghettos in the Polish territories incorporated into the Reich, approximately 380 in the General Government, and more than 600 in other occupied ... More

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