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Alchemy and Chemistry  

Anne-Lise Rey

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Jun 2016
This chapter focuses on Leibniz’s philosophical reflections on alchemy and chemistry, beginning with his views on chemistry and natural philosophy, then considering his understanding of ... More

Body and Corporeal Substance  

Daniel Garber

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Apr 2017
This chapter discusses Leibniz’s conception of body and the closely related concept of corporeal substance. Leibniz saw problems with Descartes’s and Hobbes’s view and introduced a new ... More

Causation  

Michael Rota

Print publication date:
Jan 2012
Online publication date:
May 2012
Aquinas used the term ‘agent’ referring to a created substance or to God. Aquinas's concept of substance explains that substances are set apart from accidents by the fact that substances ... More

Cosmology  

Domenico Bertoloni Meli

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2015
This chapter focuses on Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s interest in cosmology in relation to some of his other concerns, including God’s role in the universe, the reunion of the churches, ... More

Dewey and Bioethics  

D. Micah Hester

Print publication date:
Oct 2019
Online publication date:
Dec 2017
The professional field of bioethics arose in the late 20th century, but many of its substantive characteristics were anticipated, even guided, by pragmatism in general and John Dewey ... More

Dewey and Environmental Philosophy  

Paul B. Thompson and Zachary Piso

Print publication date:
Oct 2019
Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Though environmental philosophers trace the roots of environmental awareness to the decades of John Dewey’s prominence, Dewey himself was conspicuously mum about the environmental ... More

Early Physics  

Philip Beeley

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Mar 2017
This chapter discusses Leibniz’s earliest work on physical questions. It begins with how his discovery of contemporary publications on the laws of motion prompted him to investigate the ... More

The Emergence of Psychology  

Gary Hatfield

Print publication date:
Feb 2014
Online publication date:
Apr 2014
This chapter challenges the view that psychology emerged from philosophy about 1900, when each found its own proper sphere with little relation to the other. It begins by considering the ... More

Eternity  

Chantal Jaquet

Print publication date:
Oct 2017
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
Eternity is a property that substance and modes have in common. Spinoza posits in E5p23 that “the human mind cannot be absolutely destroyed with the body, but something of it remains which ... More

Evolution and Ethics in Victorian Britain  

Michael Ruse

Print publication date:
Feb 2014
Online publication date:
Apr 2014
With the coming of evolutionary speculations in the middle of the nineteenth century, there was much interest in the possible implications of these ideas for ethical thinking and action. ... More

Evolution and Religion  

John Hedley Brooke

Print publication date:
Feb 2014
Online publication date:
Apr 2014
This essay examines the impact of evolutionary theory on religious thinking in Victorian Britain. Four cultural shifts are identified that were associated with Darwin’s scientific ... More

Experiments in the Principia  

George E. Smith

Newton carried out four groundbreaking experiments in conjunction with the Principia and proposed a fifth. This chapter reviews his reasons for doing them, their design, and what they ... More

Force and Dynamics  

Daniel Garber and Tzuchien Tho

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Leibniz’s mature physics is most noted for the centrality of the notion of force and the development of the dynamics, the science of force. This chapter examines the development and ... More

Francis Bacon  

Guido Giglioni

Print publication date:
Jul 2013
Online publication date:
Aug 2013
This chapter examines the contribution of Francis Bacon to early modern philosophy. It argues that Bacon's work is not limited to epistemology and scientific methodology, and explains that ... More

From Causes to Laws  

Tad M. Schmaltz

Print publication date:
Jan 2011
Online publication date:
May 2011
This article examines the transition from causes to laws in research during the early modern period in Europe. It discusses Stillman Drake's claim that the search for causes of events in ... More

The History of the Philosophy of Biology  

David L. Hull

Print publication date:
Jul 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
There are two problems in the history of science, the first being the use of anachronistic terminology and the other one is the need to simplify. Aristotle derived his basic philosophy of ... More

Hobbes on the Foundations of Natural Philosophy  

Douglas M. Jesseph

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Dec 2014
This chapter is concerned with the foundations of Hobbes’s natural philosophy, notably his account of space and time, as well as an inertial law the author terms the “persistence principle” ... More

Hume and Cognitive Science  

Jesse Prinz

Print publication date:
Jan 2016
Online publication date:
Jul 2015
This contribution is concerned with the relevance of Hume’s empirical approach to the study of the mind for contemporary cognitive science. It is argued that Hume’s views, empirically ... More

Hume and the Problem of Causation  

Helen Beebee

Print publication date:
Jan 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
This chapter traces Hume’s search for the impression-source of the idea of necessary connection through Book 1 of the Treatise. It then sketches and evaluates the main interpretative ... More

Hume on Space and Time  

Donald L.M. Baxter

Print publication date:
Jan 2016
Online publication date:
Aug 2014
For Hume, the ideas of space and of time are each a general idea of some indivisible objects arranged in a certain manner with additional qualities that make them conceivable to the mind. ... More

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