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Aristotle on the Infinite  

Ursula Coope

Print publication date:
Aug 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
In Physics, Aristotle starts his positive account of the infinite by raising a problem: “[I]f one supposes it not to exist, many impossible things result, and equally if one supposes it to ... More

Aristotle's Logic  

Paolo Crivelli

Print publication date:
Aug 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Aristotle created logic and developed it to a level of great sophistication. There was nothing there before; and it took more than two millennia for something better to come around. The ... More

Aristotle's Philosophy of Mathematics  

David Bostock

Print publication date:
Aug 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Much of Aristotle's thought developed in reaction to Plato's views, and this is certainly true of his philosophy of mathematics. To judge from his dialogue, the Meno, the first thing that ... More

The Axiomatic Approach to Truth  

Kentaro Fujimoto and Volker Halbach

Print publication date:
Jul 2018
Online publication date:
Sep 2018
This chapter sketches the motivations for treating truth as a primitive notion and developing axiomatic theories of truth. Then the main axiomatic systems of typed and type-free truth are ... More

Bayesianism  

James M. Joyce

Print publication date:
Feb 2004
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article is concerned with Bayesian epistemology. Bayesianism claims to provide a unified theory of epistemic and practical rationality based on the principle of mathematical ... More

Bivalence and Determinacy  

Ian Rumfitt

Print publication date:
Jul 2018
Online publication date:
Sep 2018
The principle that every statement is bivalent (i.e. either true or false) has been a bone of philosophical contention for centuries, for an apparently powerful argument for it (due to ... More

Calculating Machine  

Matthew L. Jones

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Jun 2017
This chapter sketches the challenges Leibniz faced in building a calculating machine for arithmetic, especially his struggle to coordinate with skilled artisans, surveys his philosophical ... More

The Calculus  

Siegmund Probst

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Nov 2017
This chapter discusses the history of Leibniz's work on infinitesimal calculus of which a considerable part is still unknown. His new method, emerging from studies in the summing of ... More

The Coherence Theory of Truth  

Ralph Walker

Print publication date:
Jul 2018
Online publication date:
Sep 2018
The coherence theory holds that truth consists in coherence amongst our beliefs. It can thus rule out radical scepticism and avoid the problems of the correspondence theory. Considerations ... More

Computational Economics  

Paul Humphreys

Print publication date:
Mar 2009
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Computational economics is a relatively new research technique in economics, but it is inexorably taking its place alongside the more traditional methods of general theory, abstract ... More

Computationalism  

Gualtiero Piccinini

Print publication date:
Jan 2012
Online publication date:
May 2012
The introduction of the concept of computation in cognitive science is discussed in this article. Computationalism is usually introduced as an empirical hypothesis that can be ... More

Constitutivism about Practical Reasons  

Paul Katsafanas

Print publication date:
Jun 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
This chapter introduces constitutivism about practical reason, which is the view that we can justify certain normative claims by showing that agents become committed to these claims simply ... More

Constructivism About Reasons  

Nicholas Southwood

Print publication date:
Jun 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Given constructivism’s enduring popularity and appeal, it is perhaps something of a surprise that there remains considerable uncertainty among many philosophers about what constructivism ... More

Contextual Theories of Truth and Paradox  

Keith Simmons

Print publication date:
Jul 2018
Online publication date:
Sep 2018
This chapter reviews the major contextual theories of truth and paradox. These theories are all motivated by a certain kind of liar discourse, sometimes called the strengthened liar or ... More

The Correspondence Theory of Truth  

Marian David

Print publication date:
Jul 2018
Online publication date:
Sep 2018
A classical formulation of the correspondence theory of truth tells us that truth is a general relational property, involving a characteristic relation to some portion of reality. The ... More

Counterfactual Theories  

L. A. Paul

Print publication date:
Nov 2009
Online publication date:
Jan 2010
Counterfactual analyses have received a good deal of attention in recent years, resulting in a host of counterexamples and objections to the simple analysis and its descendants. The ... More

Decision Theory and Epistemology  

Mark Kaplan

Print publication date:
Oct 2005
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article finds it characteristic of orthodox Bayesians to hold that for each person and each hypothesis it comprehends, there is a precise degree of confidence that person has in the ... More

Deflationist Truth  

Jody Azzouni

Print publication date:
Jul 2018
Online publication date:
Sep 2018
A taxonomy of theories of truth is provided. Two versions of deflationist theories of “true” are distinguished, T-schema deflationism and semantic-descent deflationism. These are ... More

Determinant Theory, Symmetric Functions, and Dyadic  

Eberhard Knobloch

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Dec 2014
This chapter examines Leibniz’s determinant theory and analyzes the contribution of ars characteristica, ars combinatoria, and ars inveniendi to this theory. It explains that the art of ... More

Developments in Logic: Carnap, Gödel, and Tarski  

Erich H. Reck

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013
From the start of the analytic tradition in philosophy, in the works of Frege, Russell, and the early Wittgenstein, the use of logic to address philosophical problems has been a central ... More

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