Catherine Z. Elgin
This article discusses the character of art and the centrality of art education to the curriculum. It argues against the claim that art is impervious to education. It explains that though inspiration is essential to art and inspiration cannot be taught, the assumption that art is entirely a product of inspiration is unfounded. In addition, sensory and emotional responses can be educated. It shows how a symbol-theoretic conception of art readily explains how art education is possible and why it is valuable.
Christa Davis Acampora
Ecce Homo offers Nietzsche’s own interpretation of himself, his thoughts, and his works. This article analyzes how the text bears on his ideas about agency, fate, and freedom. It presents an account of “how one becomes what one is.” For Nietzsche, a person is a set of drives ordered or ranked a certain way; there is no will or subject separate from these that could carry out the work of becoming. What is most important is that one’s drives be coordinated in a single entity. Through these tactics some of us can become what we are.
Richard E. Grandy
This article addresses questions concerning science education, focusing on contemporary cognitive scientific investigations of teaching and learning in the science classroom. It distinguishes several kinds of views labelled constructivist and argues for the relevance of cognitive and epistemic constructivism to science education and irrelevance of ontological constructivism. It contends that proper understandings of what is involved in the knowledge of science and scientific method involves mutually informing between parties and portraying a much more complex cognitive and social landscape than that which is usually recognized.
This article addresses general questions concerning the extent to which, and the ways in which, the curriculum is and ought to be driven by our views of knowledge. It discusses the realization of some educational philosophers that the obvious starting point for curriculum reflection is with questions about the epistemic status of this or that form of knowledge or skill. It describes Plato's conception of knowledge and his views on education and curriculum and John Dewey's pragmatist progressivism. It also describes the implications of the key issues of curriculum theory for political philosophy and theory.
This article provides a psychological account of the development of rationality in the context of education. It explains that implicit in the metacognitive conception of rationality is a constructivist conception of its development. It suggests that if rationality is fundamentally a matter of knowledge and control of our knowledge and inferences, then it presumably develops through processes of reflection and coordination. It contends that metacognitive reflection and coordination often occur in the context of social interaction and this often includes parent-child and teacher-student interactions.
Stefaan E. Cuypers
This article explores the concept of educating for authenticity. It outlines the debate on free will to show how the main problems in the metaphysics of free will essentially connect with key issues in the philosophy of education. It examines Richard S. Peters' attempt to deal with the puzzle of naturalized self-creation in real time and Robert Noggle's contemporary attempt to resolve the paradox of self-creation. It offers a forward-looking account of educating for authenticity.
Educating for Individual Freedom and Democratic Citizenship: In Unity and Diversity There Is Strength
This article addresses contentious questions concerning individual freedom and democratic citizenship education in the contemporary circumstances of multiculturalism. It suggests that educating children for civic equality is an ambitious aim for any democracy and not one that can ever be realized once and for all. It provides evidence that multicultural conditions can challenge the very aim of educating children for civic equality. It explains that democracies are variously multicultural and the varieties of groups make a difference in the kind of education and the progress toward civic equality that can realistically be expected at any time.
This article argues for the educational importance of imagination and sketches strategies for developing it in the classroom. It explains that imagination is a necessary ingredient in the operation of practical reasoning and that considerations that limit or constrain and direct it are in the nature of the case integrated with other functions of practical reasoning, with critical rationality and with constraints of relevant reasonableness. The article describes potential practical applications of imagination in education.
This article examines the relationships between education, democracy, and capitalism through the works of John Dewey, John Stuart Mill, and Adam Smith. It explores some basic questions that arise in developing an approach to education within our liberal democratic tradition. It suggests that that Dewey's philosophy of education has the resources to answer a challenge posed by Smith's economic analyses and that philosophers ought to embrace Dewey's reconceptualization of philosophy as the general theory of education.
This article investigates the moral and legal legitimacy of some varieties of educational authority, emphasizing the important but often overlooked interests of children. It argues that educational authority should be shared among not two but three parties: parents, the state, and children themselves. It considers the trilogy of independent interests in education: parental interests, state interests, and children's interests and considers how children might in practice exercise authority over their education.
D. C. Phillips
This article evaluates extant philosophical critiques of educational research and discusses the scientific status, current state, and future promise of such research. It provides a more nuanced overview than is often given of the research terrain and its intellectual and methodological disputes. It discusses the problem of selecting exemplary research, the scope of educational research, the politicization of research methodology and the role of philosophers of education on educational research.
This article examines the ideal epistemic aims of education. It explains that epistemology is concerned with giving an account of knowledge and suggests that if educators ought to aim at having their students acquire knowledge their epistemic aims should be related to this goal. It contends that the epistemic aims of education do not concern curricular subjects but with the way the work of the educator should be guided by an understanding of the nature of knowledge itself.
Werner Güth and Hartmut Kliemt
The originally Hobbesian ideal of twentieth-century neoclassical economics as a discipline that studies human interaction “more geometrico” as a scenery of interactive rational decision making is rejected. “Explaining” overt behavior as (if it were) the equilibrium outcome of opportunity seeking rational choices is impossible if the requirement of approximate truth of the explanans is upheld. Stylized accounts of some central experiments (prisoner’s dilemma, ultimatum, dictator, impunity games, double oral auctions) show why this is so and illustrate basic contributions of experimental economics in an exemplary manner. A somewhat detailed account of an experiment concerning “equity” shows the explanatory potential and “workings” of experimental economics and how its findings can contribute to traditional philosophical and psychological discussions. Why the Humean “attempt to introduce the experimental method of reasoning into moral subjects” must remain incomplete until experimental economics and experimental psychology become fully complementary research strategies is indicated as well.
Eamonn Callan and Dylan Arena
This article examines the concept of indoctrination in the context of education. It explains that a pejorative meaning is now firmly attached to the word indoctrination and argues that the basis of the moral condemnation that accusations of indoctrination have come to convey is unclear in the absence of philosophical argument. It discusses the historical concept and conception of indoctrination, its outcome, its moral status, and its role in moral responsibility.
Nancy Cartwright, Anna Alexandrova, Sophia Efstathiou, Andrew Hamilton, and Ioan Muntean
For a long time the analytic tradition in philosophy of science focused on two main questions about laws: ‘Can one reasonably take a realist stand about the laws of science?’ and ‘What distinguishes a law from other kinds of truths, especially from universal and statistical truths that are not laws?’ This article discusses five overlapping positions that downplay the role of laws in science and nature. The slogan of all of these could be Ronald Giere's ‘Science without laws!’ Before that the second section describes more traditional views that take laws as central, either as the repository of scientific knowledge (laws of science) or as the basic sources or governors for what happens (laws of nature).
This article examines issues concerning multicultural education. It argues that multicultural education has no independent identity or value beyond the various goals, practices, or content to which others attach it. The article describes the different uses and meanings of multicultural education as articulated by political and educational philosophers, educational theorists, and educational practitioners. It highlights some potential tensions among the aims, practices, and content of multicultural education and reflects on multicultural education's potential practical importance despite its conceptual incoherence.
Alex Langlinais and Brian Leiter
This article examines methodological debates in legal philosophy by focusing on two (related) methodological claims in H. L. A. Hart’s 1961 book, The Concept of Law: that Hart’s theory is both general and descriptive, and an exercise in both linguistic analysis and descriptive sociology. It considers what these claims reveal about Hart’s theoretical ambitions and methodological commitments, and what light they shed on debates in legal philosophy since then. In particular, it discusses the most important elements of Hart’s theory, such as the union of primary and secondary rules in law, the “rule of recognition” as a social rule, and the relationship between legal and moral norms. It also explores several objections to Hart’s approach to the problems of legal philosophy, including one that questions the fruitfulness of the methodology of conceptual analysis. Finally, it analyzes the argument of Hart and all legal positivists that legal systems are social constructs.
R. Lanier Anderson
This article explores various conceptions of Nietzsche’s thoughts on autonomy. It distinguishes six main interpretive approaches, each with its own conception of autonomy: (1) autonomy as spontaneous self-determination, in the sense of traditional free will; (2) a “standard model” interpretation counting actions as autonomous when they are caused by rationalizing beliefs and desires; (3) a view that traces autonomy to a Kantian transcendental subject; (4) constitutivist theories that seek to explain the source of normativity by “deriving ethics from action”; (5) “hierarchical model” interpretations arguing that complex, higher-order attitudes “speak for the agent,” and thereby constitute her autonomy; and (6) conceptions of autonomy as an ethical ideal.
Jason Vogel, David N. Cherney, and Elizabeth A. Lowham
The policy sciences tradition is a comprehensive transdisciplinary approach to develop insight into real-world decision-making, resolve problems, and improve policy outcomes. The policy sciences draw freely from the methods of many conventional disciplines, as well as offer a framework to integrate the insights from those disciplines into a more holistic understanding of any policy process. This unique approach to policy analysis uses a set of interdisciplinary frameworks and propositions as a heuristic device or “mental model” that provides a transdisciplinary instrument for integrating the insights of policy scholarship, social research, and practical experience across disciplines and substantive specialties. This facilitates the integration of knowledge and practice to improve problem solving and policy analysis by calling attention to the potentially relevant parts of any problem, decision process, or social context. This chapter reviews the history and development of the policy sciences and provides an overview of some key frameworks and propositions.
Nicholas C. Burbules
This article examines the impact of postmodernism on the philosophy of education. It explains that one of the most important elements of postmodernity is a growing awareness of the radical diversity and potential incommensurability of the different cultural forms of life that sustain groups and individuals and discusses postmodernists' denial that postmodernism is inherently apathetic or hostile to social or political action. It addresses the promise of and problems facing postmodern approaches to the philosophy of education.