Psycholinguistics encompasses the psychology of language as well as linguistic psychology. Although they might sound similar, they are actually distinct. The first is a branch of linguistics, while the latter is a subdivision of psychology. In the psychology of language, the means are the research tools adopted from psychology and the end is the study of language. However, in linguistic psychology, the means are the data derived from linguistic studies and the end is psychology. This chapter focuses on the first of these two components; that is, the psychology of language. The goal of this chapter is to give a state-of-the-art perspective on the small but growing body of research using psycholinguistic tools to study Persian with a focus on two areas: presenting longstanding debates about the mental lexicon, language impairments and language processing; and introducing a source of data for the linguistic analysis of Persian.