This chapter focuses on sport historiography in Australia and New Zealand, with three broad aims: to survey historic and historiographic developments, to consider the historiographical predominance of team ball sports, and to chart new and emerging directions. While sport had long formed part of popular discourse in both countries, in the 1980s historians began to analyze sport comprehensively, and the decades since have witnessed a substantial growth in sports historiography produced by academic scholars. Research has had a particular focus on certain sports, especially cricket, rugby, and Australian Rules football, which has been problematic in terms of its exclusivity and yet generative of important scholarly discussion and debate. New research directions, especially those emerging from an increased engagement with the cultural turn in the past decade, have yielded important studies into the fields of affect, bodies, materiality, visuality, and other areas new or rare in sports history.
The Chronology provides a detailed outline of the relevant publications, organizations, and statutes from the year 1859 to 1989 that relate to the field of eugenics.
Robin Osborne and Andrew Wallace‐Hadrill
This article shows that many different ways of inhabiting the city were already developed in antiquity and uncovers some of the basic tensions between (economic and other) dependence and independence that meant that cities always required, but often also disowned, broader networks. It begins with a discussion of the peculiar character of the ancient Mediterranean city. It then shows how the history of the Mediterranean city in antiquity is a history of the formation and exploitation of networks of cities, and of competition between differently organized networks. It explores something of the variety of different cities that are developed to play specialist parts within these networks. While acknowledging that relatively densely populated and large communities always demand some political organization and depend upon a larger economic network, it emphasizes that neither politics nor the economy are necessarily the primary motivations for urbanization. It identifies ways in which cities are used by groups with very limited political or economic power.
Thomas R. Metcalf
This article examines the growth and distinctive character of colonial cities as they developed over time. It begins with discussions of the early modern period and the great age of empire in the nineteenth century. It then focuses on design and planning, governance, the distinctive settler cities, and the impact of decolonization. Throughout it argues that colonial urbanism was intimately connected to — and helped sustain — the growth of the emerging capitalist world order. Yet, at the same time, the process of colonial urbanism was affected not only by the varied policies pursued by the different European powers, but, as well, by the activities of local peoples as they endeavoured to come to terms with, and helped shape, the new urban world in which they found themselves.
The Columbian Exchange refers to the flow of plants, animals and microbes across the Atlantic Ocean and beyond. Coined in 1972 by the historian Alfred Crosby, the Columbian Exchange set in motion Christopher Columbus' historic voyage to the Americas in 1492. Crosby used the term "Columbian Exchange" to describe the process of biological diffusion that arose following Europe's colonization of the Americas. Crosby's The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 chronicled the wide-ranging consequences of the transfer of diseases, plants and animals that ensued after 1492. The book, essentially consisting of a series of interlocking essays, documented the impact of Old World plants and animals on the Americas, the global dissemination of New World foods, and how European colonization resulted in the transmission of pathogens. Crosby made forceful arguments to support his claim that the most significant consequences of European colonization of the new world were biological in nature.
Penelope J. Corfield
There is no instant theory or single factor that explains the waxing and waning of towns and cities, and major interpretations of urban change avoid highlighting one static causal factor. But, historically, three Grand Narratives (long-term interpretations) have offered classic accounts of urban development through time, which is, of course, integrally yoked with space. This article begins by reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of these models, when applied globally. While none fits all circumstances, their collective insights point to key features within urban history. The second half of the article recombines those central elements into a new and different three fold pattern, again taking an aggregate view of developments over the very long term.
Xiangming Chen and Henry Fitts
This article discusses the growth of metropolitan cities and city-regions, most notably in the United States, East and South East Asia, and Latin America. The analysis focuses on patterns of social and spatial inequality, the impact of globalization, and the problems of governance and finance of such sprawling, over-extended entities, and the implications for transport and infrastructure.
Lucy M. Long
A product of both world history and contemporary mass culture, culinary tourism is a scholarly field of study that is emerging as an important part of the tourism industry. Also known as gastronomic tourism, tasting tourism, and simply food tourism, culinary tourism refers to adventurous eating, eating out of curiosity, exploring other cultures through food, intentionally participating in the foodways of an Other, and the development of food as a tourist destination and attraction. In culinary tourism, the primary motivation for travel is to experience a specific food. Culinary tourism parallels the globalization of food production and consumption and reflects issues inherent in tourism. It has the potential to address some of the controversial issues in tourism in general, such as questions of authenticity, commodification of tradition, identity construction, intellectual property and intangible heritage, as well as the ecological, economic, and cultural sustainability of food cultures in response to tourism.
“Marwari” stands for people hailing from a region in western India known as Marwar. In common parlance, the term refers to merchants and bankers from this region speaking the language spoken there and living elsewhere. Marwaris left this region and resettled in other parts of India and abroad from at least the eighteenth century. The article explores the Marwari diaspora. Although many Marwaris engaged in trade, banking, and occasionally manufacture, the group was socially and occupationally diverse. After liberalization of the Indian economy in the 1990s, some Marwari individuals have made successful use of new investment opportunities from a business base that had been created before the economy opened up, but, overall, the group has experienced the same pattern of “creative destruction” as have other business communities. In small towns, Marwaris have almost seamlessly assimilated with local society. In big business, the companies they own define the character of the business more than ethnic identity.
A major challenge for food scholars is how they can explain the evolution of a global food system where distant social actors, ecologies, and places have complex, and often contradictory, relations. In particular, scholars face the difficult task of providing an account of food system change that is at once theoretically sophisticated, historically grounded, and holistic in its perspective. A leading example of this type of approach is food regimes analysis, which is anchored in historical political economy. The food regimes approach views agriculture and food in relation to the development of capitalism on a global scale, and argues that social change is brought about by struggles among social movements, capital, and states. The concept of food regimes was introduced by Harriet Friedmann and Philip McMichael in an article in which they addressed the changing role of food and agriculture in the development of global capitalism since 1870. Food regimes analysis combines two strands of macro-sociological theory: regulationism and world-systems theory. This article examines the theoretical, empirical, and methodological contributions of food regimes analysis, and looks at some of the latest developments in food regime theorizing and research.
Donna R. Gabaccia
To determine how scholars have tackled the study of food as part of world histories, this article reviews research connecting the history of food with that of human mobility. It explores how and under what circumstances food practices "spread" or "diffuse" among human societies. It asserts that the study of food is becoming a more central theme in world history due to recent interest in mapping the links among the culturally distinct societies of the six continents over the course of human life on earth. Such histories offer a glimpse into the relationship of the general and particular in culinary culture. World histories indicate that trade, human migrations, and media are the mechanisms that allow particular foods, food practices, food technologies, and food knowledge to travel across space and time, and cultural boundaries to become general.
In the African countryside, food has a social biography which is both linear and cyclical. According to the golden-age theory, every member of the community deserves access to food, while the alternative perspective argues that not all members enjoy those rights. Both theories fall within what Stephen J. Gould called "time's cycle" or "the intelligibility of timeless order and lawlike structure." As components of time's cycle, the alternative vision and the golden-age theory address the problem of order and represent peasants' collective protest against what Mircea Eliade termed "terror of history," which refers to terrifying events such as famine. The linear nature of the social biography of food is part of Gould's "time's arrow." The old Mang'anja of Malawi referred to famine, a one-time event, as chaola, or moment of rottenness, which is different from recurrent hunger or njala. The history of Malawi's food system represents a story about irreversible change and about days and seasons.
This article focuses on Spanish (with some reference to Portuguese) America. It first reviews indigenous urban traditions, and those that colonists brought. It then describes the physical and social fabrics of colonial cities, with the major economic, political, and cultural changes they experienced. A coda deals with innovations between independence and the impact of global industrialization.
The real beginning of modern urbanization in Latin America came only after 1880 when several areas in the south of the region began to develop successful export regimes and began to industrialize. This article first considers urbanization trends up to 2010. It then looks at the changing shape of the urban system and at the quality of urban life. It concludes with a discussion of the urban impact of globalization.
Europe's insatiable demand for spices in the late Middle Ages (1200-1500 AD) is a remarkable example of dramatic historic change triggered by consumer preference. The spice trade is important to the history of food not only because of the trade routes and speculation about how to expand them, but also because of the reasons for the heavy demand in the first place. Tropical spices are not an essential ingredient of modern European cuisine. This article documents the spice trade during the medieval period. It first considers the ubiquity of spices in medieval gastronomy and medieval pharmacology. It then turns to the health benefits of spices to medieval food, the origins and imagined origins of spices, spice trade routes, and prices of spices.
This article discusses the key aspects of Mesopotamian cities, including the earliest ‘organic’ examples in late pre-history (c.3850
Mercedes Volait and Mohammad al-Asad
This article traces the growth and development of cities in the Middle East, highlighting the shifts in political and economic levels, demographic dynamics, and social and spatial transformations. It suggests that in contrast with the situation prevailing in colonial Africa or India, Middle Eastern cities transformed socially, culturally, and physically following a specific pattern that combined external forces and internal agency. Consequently, the local engagement with Western-style modernity in pre-colonial, semi-colonial, colonial, and post-colonial times and its changing expressions over time is a recurring theme in this discussion. The article is divided into two parts. The first period covers urban transformation in the region from the enactment of Ottoman Land Law of 1858 at one end and the independences of the 1950s at the other. The second period covers the era opened by decolonization, marked by the growth of statism and a subsequent shift to economic liberalism, illustrated by the growing number of large-scale/urban real-estate development projects fuelled by oil money.
This article examines the complex nature of the ascendancy of Islamic cities from the eighth century, drawing on late Roman and Byzantine legacies but also powered by militarization under Muslim rule and by their function as a key vehicle in the affirmation and diffusion of Islam. The absence of civic autonomy was offset by informal power structures and organizations within the city such as neighbourhoods and waqfs. Strong urban growth in the high Middle Ages, especially in Syria and Egypt, was boosted by heavy rural and ethnic immigration and by international overland trade that benefited from the rise of the Mongol empire stretching from the Middle East to East Asia.
This article examines the landscape of Ottoman cities, the pressures and problems cities faced, urban governance, city relations with the sultan and imperial government. In the sixteenth century Ottoman cities in general experienced a period of rapid growth, as the empire expanded territorially, trade and commercial prosperity increased, and the overall population rose. Things change in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries as the impact of the world beyond the Ottoman frontier became more intrusive. In addition to growing European military pressure and the rise of the oceanic long-distance trade routes, there was increased penetration by western European merchants of regional markets and mounting international competition for Ottoman urban industries. Yet Ottoman cities in general, led by Istanbul, continued to enjoy modest prosperity and growth until the last decades of the century.
Peter C. Perdue
The American scholar, traveler, political adviser, and public intellectual Owen Lattimore strongly shaped American public opinion toward China and Central Eurasia in the twentieth century, but he also wrote major works on the geography and environment of the frontiers of Asia that still influence global historians today. His writings asserted the vital importance of China’s relationship with the nomads of the steppe, including the Mongols, for defining the boundaries, cultures, and geopolitical strategy of empires and nation states. He argued for sophisticated explanations of relationships between environmental forces like climate and human culture, and he analyzed China and Central Eurasia so as to provide new perspectives on world history. This article evaluates Lattimore’s contributions to world history in the light of his dynamic political and academic life.