This chapter describes the effects of warfare in the Hellenistic period, which influenced nearly every aspect of life for people living in the Greek East at the time. The phalanx remained the basic unit of the Hellenistic army. The Hellenistic world saw a proliferation of technical manuals concerning the art of war. The composition of armies included infantry, cavalry, auxiliary forces, siege warfare, and navies. The Macedonian cavalry was the main striking arm of the combined force. Cavalry in the Hellenistic world were organized largely as in Alexander's day. Hellenistic siege warfare featured its share of exotic weapons. It is shown that the sea became a venue for battle. There was a marked shift in the composition of both navies and armies during the Hellenistic period.
Nicholas V. Sekunda
This chapter explains Greek warfare and society. The concept of the soldier-citizen was an important component in the Greek city-state or polis. The large-scale wars that took place throughout the Greek world from the death of Alexander until the battle of Corupedium in 281 deprived many of Greek city-states, whic had chronic problems with finances. The Greeks employed a bewildering range of words for payments in kind or cash. The mercenaries were vital in the Hellenistic period. If a city fell after a siege, the impacts on trade and prices were mostly local. The drastic human losses could have important social, political, and demographic effects. It is impossible to quantify the number of persons uprooted by war in the Greek world, but they must have been considerable.