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Achaemenid Persia and the Levant  

Josette Elayi

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2014
This articlefocuses on Achaemenid Persia’s rule of the Levant. It explains that the Levant fell under the control of Persia after Cyrus the Great defeated the last Babylonian ... More

Aegypto Capta: Augustus and the Annexation of Egypt  

Friederike Herklotz

Print publication date:
Jun 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article discusses the Ptolemaic legacy and Egyptian independence; the annexation of Egypt; and the first Roman prefects in Egypt. In contrast to earlier changes of ruler, the ... More

Age and Health  

Walter Scheidel

Print publication date:
Jun 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Roman Egypt is the only part of the ancient world where documentary evidence for the age composition of the general population has survived. Pertinent information is provided by extant ... More

Al-Andalus  

Patrice Cressier and Sonia Gutiérrez Lloret

Print publication date:
Jan 2021
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
The archaeology of al-Andalus did not emerge as a discipline until the end of the 1970s, slightly later than medieval archaeology in Northern Europe. Its spectacular development in ... More

Alexander the Great and the Seleucids in Iran  

Paul J. Kosmin

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013
Alexander’s conquest of the Achaemenid Empire marks a watershed in Iranian history. The conquest and the Greek sources available that discuss it are assessed, as is Alexander’s treatment of ... More

Alexandria  

Marjorie S. Venit

Print publication date:
Jun 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Distinguished in the first century bce as 'the first city of the civilized world', Alexandria still wore the accolade 'crown of all cities' as late as the fourth century bce. After Egypt's ... More

Ammon During the Iron Age II Period  

Randall W. Younker

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2014
This articleexamines some of the major developments in Ammon during the Iron Age II. It explains that the Ammonites became an important local polity on the central Jordanian plateau from ... More

Anatolia  

Karina Croucher

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article addresses Anatolia during the Neolithic, a time-span covering approximately 5,000 years, and a geographical region broadly covering modern-day central and southern Turkey. The ... More

Anatolia (Hittites) and the Levant  

Horst Klengel

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2014
This article focuses on the relationship between the Hittites of Anatolia and the people of the Levant. It explains that a new orientation of Near Eastern contact and trade emerged during ... More

Anatolia and the Transcaucasus Themes and Variations ca. 6400–1500 B.C.E.  

Antonio Sagona

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article examines Anatolian–Transcaucasian interactions spanning the Chalcolithic through the Bronze Age. The five millennia surveyed here have highlighted some broad patterns of ... More

Anatolia: The First Millennium B.C.E. in Historical Context  

G. Kenneth Sams

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article provides an overview of the first millennium BCE, drawing on a wide range of sources to put into perspective the sweeping changes of the Iron Age, with invasions by peoples of ... More

Anatolian Chronology and Terminology  

Jak Yakar

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article discusses dating techniques and the necessity of working with both material and textual evidence to develop secure chronologies for the rather daunting range of Anatolian ... More

Ancient Landscapes in Southeastern Anatolia  

Jason Ur

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article considers the nature of ancient landscapes and their archaeological investigation in southeastern Anatolia, one of the most intensively studied regions in modern Turkey. ... More

Arabia and the Gulf  

Andrew Petersen

Print publication date:
Jan 2021
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
This chapter introduces the main ways in which archaeology has been used to investigate Arabia’s past during the Islamic era. While the potential for archaeology within the peninsula cannot ... More

Aramaic, Parthian, and Middle Persian  

Seiro Haruta

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013
This chapter surveys the use of Aramaic, Parthian, and Early Middle Persian (the latter two both Middle Iranian languages) in Iran, as well as providing a discussion of the scripts used to ... More

The Aramean States During the Iron Age II–III Periods  

Stefania Mazzoni

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2014
This articleexamines major changes in the Aramean states from the Iron Age II to III. This period witnessed a significant change in the geography of thepolitical borders of the area and ... More

The Archaeological Record of Indian Ocean Engagements in the Red Sea  

Eivind Heldaas Seland

This chapter reviews the evidence, nature, and development of maritime contacts in the Red Sea and from the Red Sea into the western Indian Ocean from the Neolithic until the start of the ... More

Archaeology in the Delta  

Penelope Wilson

Print publication date:
Jun 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article reviews archaeological studies in the Nile Delta. It discusses problems of archaeological work in the Delta; previous work in the Delta; current research and survey; survey and ... More

The Archaeology of the Fayum  

Paola Davoli

Print publication date:
Jun 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article discusses the archaeology of the Fayum region, covering land reclamation projects; discoveries and archaeological excavations; layout of Graeco-Roman settlements; and houses of ... More

Archaeozoological techniques and protocols for elaborating scenarios of early colonization and Neolithization of Cyprus  

Jean-Denis Vigne

Print publication date:
Mar 2017
Online publication date:
Apr 2017
This paper summarizes some of the main results that have been obtained through the archaeozoological study of the large Cypriot Pre-Pottery Neolithic site of Shillourokambos, dated between ... More

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