American animal shelters house between six and eight million dogs and cats each year. The question of what to do with millions of healthy but unwanted animals has animated sheltering from the start. Responses reveal how the presence of animals in society shapes institutions, laws, and policies. Pounds emerged to resolve the problems posed by stray animals. Concern for animal welfare created the need and justification for shelters, as humane alternatives to the pounds. Trends in pet-keeping and veterinary medicine shaped twentieth-century sheltering practices, as shelter populations evolved from strays to unwanted pets. Recently, criticism of high euthanasia rates engendered no-kill shelters. The social and cultural significance of animal sheltering lies in the light it sheds on the changing value of companion animals.
Archaeozoology may be defined as the scientific evaluation of faunal materials retrieved from archaeological sites. These include all the organic remains left in the soil after the death and decay of animals but also the representation of animals in rock art and on portable materials. Zooarchaeology is a comparable term but differs in that the primary reason for study of the animals is archaeological rather than zoological. However, the two terms are often used as synonyms. A summary is given of the development of archaeozoology as a multidisciplinary science, followed by examples of investigations on mammalian remains that exemplify how comparative osteology, isotope analysis, molecular biology, radiocarbon dating, and searches of literature can all be used to reveal the roles played by the multiplicity of animal species that have been associated with human societies over millennia since the end of the last Ice Age.
The idea that there might be “limits to growth” is a key and contested feature of environmental politics. This chapter outlines the limits to growth thesis, describes and assesses critical reactions to it, and comments upon its relevance today. It argues that, after an initial highpoint in the early 1970s, the thesis declined in importance during the 1980s and 1990s under criticism from “ecological modernizers” and from environmental justice advocates in the global South who saw it as way of diverting blame for ecological problems from the rich and powerful to the poor and dispossessed. “Peak oil” and climate change have, though, given renewed impetus to the idea, and this has given rise to new discourses and practices around “sustainable prosperity” and “degrowth.”
This article explains that civil society and civility are associated with one another. It discusses the three elements of civic life which include civility, civicness, and the civic association and shows how these elements are tangled up together and rearranged in everyday citizen action. It explores some common obstacles in linking civility with civicness, particularly the roles played by inequality, diversity, conflict, and discomfort. It also examines how real civic associations manage to overcome these obstacles, making it possible for people to imagine their own everyday relationships in the light of a broader social context.
Mark E. Warren
This article investigates how democracy is related to civil society. It investigates whether it is possible to distinguish the kinds, dimensions, and functions of civil society that are likely to deepen democracy from those that are not and analyzes what can be done to develop less abstract conceptions of both democracy and civil society. It evaluates the potential contributions of civil society to democracy and describes the features of associations that are likely to determine their democratic contributions.
Hilde Coffé and Catherine Bolzendahl
This article examines how civil society is related to the issue of diversity. It provides an overview of the different meanings and practices of citizenship and highlights how and why diverse social groups may have varying patterns of civic and political participation in both quantitative and qualitative terms. It illustrates the importance of diversity across practices, meanings, and memberships through the lens of gender as the primary form of social difference in all societies. It shows how a properly gendered analysis of civil society can reveal how and why women may be pressured to focus their participation on civil rather than political society, and around certain forms of associational life.
This article discusses the relation between civil society and equality. It examines the extent to which equality actually exists in different civil societies and evaluates the commitment and effectiveness of those civil societies in advancing equality more broadly. It investigates whether civil society is equitable and whether a more equitable civil society contribute to a more equitable world. It suggest that the time has for civil society theory to incorporate the central agenda of equality more explicitly by acknowledging the insights that critical theory has to offer, and by embracing the view that only by rigorously advancing equality will civil society play its full role in transforming the world for the better.
Nancy L. Rosenblum and Charles H. T. Lesch
This article investigates the relation and connection between civil society and government. It explains civil society and government have their own conceptual and institutional histories, and each of these histories has a foot in both political theory and social and political developments. It describes shifting boundaries of civil society-government relations and underscores the potentially transformative move towards partnerships that reach into areas that were previously marked out as separate terrains.
Stephen M. Gardiner
Climate change is an ethical issue. Although justice is only one part of ethics, it is often understood to occupy an exalted position as ‘the first virtue of social institutions’, where this implies that unjust institutions ought not to be tolerated except to avoid greater injustice. Although some have doubted that justice deserves quite such preeminence, almost all agree that it is a central concern. This article presents a brief introduction to the emerging area of climate justice for an interdisciplinary audience. Its aim is to provide a preliminary sense of the broader landscape of climate justice. It considers the initial relevance of justice to climate affairs and discusses why climate policy poses a strong challenge for ethical action. Apart from discussing how justice might guide us in making progress from within the constraints of current institutions and their immediately likely successors, it also considers the implications of relaxing such constraints.
Urban areas and their surrounding environments present a challenge and an opportunity to other species. Some animal populations have adapted successfully, taking advantage of food stores and garbage as predictable trophic resources and man-made structures as secure living space. Archaeological and historical records show that this synanthropic adaptation began in prehistory, probably before the advent of agriculture, for example in some fox populations. Some commensal species show successful ethnophoresy, such as rodent populations that have accompanied human colonization of the planet. Once established, commensal animals form a part of the everyday scene for millions of people. Our response to them ranges from food handouts to extermination, from welcome neighbors to vermin, exemplified by our range of attitudes to urban pigeons. It is argued that commensal animals are an important social and educational resource that deserves further research and encouragement.
This article lays out an analytic framework that explains why consensus building on responses to climate change cannot proceed through the institutions of science alone but requires a more differentiated and more culturally sensitive approach to confronting the climate phenomenon. It begins by placing science itself in a changing historical context, in which the ideal of science as a detached, curiosity-driven inquiry, guided by truthfulness to nature, has gradually yielded to the social reality of sciences that are more problem driven and politically accountable. It then draws on comparative studies of three national science and decision-making cultures (US, UK, and Germany) to show how the credibility of public knowledge claims relates to long-established, culturally situated practices of interpretation and reasoning. It concludes with reflections on the institutional changes that will be needed to build robust cosmopolitan knowledge for collective action on climate change and other global problems.
This chapter places the critical analysis of global health in wider intellectual and political perspective, situating critical thinking in relation to the philosophical idea of Enlightenment and ensuing debates about the nature of power, knowledge, and freedom. After a brief genealogy of critical thought, the chapter considers some of the main sources of critical thinking in global health and provides a brief survey of critical takes on health in the era of globalisation. It then considers three influential varieties of critique—of political economy, of representation, and of biopower—while touching on other critical perspectives, including feminism and anticolonial thought. As a way of prompting further reflection, the concluding section of the chapter considers recent debates about the problems of the critical enterprise itself.
This chapter asks critical thinkers and activist movements to concentrate their efforts on mapping out how and why the essential tasks of government today pivot on the arts of exercising power in techno-economic forms in both “the ecology” and “the economy” to protect the environment, maintain order, and attain the good life through more effective governmentalizing actions. In turn, they must determine if such actions either attain democratic action and environmental justice or simply accentuate technocratic domination and social injustice. The chapter provides an overview of governmentality, as Michel Foucault developed this concept, and reevaluates his provisional notion of “milieux” as it relates to shaping the environmental governmentality that many accept as progressive green political action. It concludes by stressing the importance of political reflexivity and resistance to counter the managerial impulses behind environmental governmentality.
Leslie Paul Thiele and Seaton Tarrant
In this chapter, we examine the relationship between environmental political theory and the development of sustainability studies within US higher education. We assess the incorporation of environmental political theory authors in sustainability classrooms and the extent to which environmental political theory and sustainability studies classrooms engage in experiential, skills-based learning. We situate this pedagogy as an extension of the tradition of the liberal arts, especially as developed by John Dewey, and effectively, as citizenship skill development for democratic societies. To teach twenty-first-century citizenship skills, we maintain, is to teach sustainability skills. This entails educating and empowering students to grapple intellectually and practically with the interdependent social, environmental, and economic challenges that define their current circumstances and future prospects. Environmental political theory can and should become more relevant to sustainability studies programs, primarily by strengthening its mission of engaged theory through the cultivation of experiential learning opportunities.
This chapter examines the relation between environmental science and politics with regard to its implications for environmental values, expert advice, and the public understanding of science. Environmental thinkers have offered powerful critiques of modern science, but they have also relied on science both to understand environmental problems and to legitimate political responses to them. Ironically, both romantic critics of science and their rationalist opponents tend to assume that the relation between science and politics is fixed and predetermined. They merely disagree on whether science will help or hinder environmental goals. Constructivist approaches, in contrast, highlight the mutual shaping of science and politics. From a constructivist perspective, the democratic legitimacy of environmental policies depends in part on environmental science. Science can inform public attitudes toward environmental policies, and it can help justify such policies. Realizing such possibilities depends on integrating science advice with various forms of public engagement.
Food production and consumption involves ethics, as reflected in prohibitions, refutations, exhortations, recommendations, and even less explicit ethical notions such as whether a certain food product is natural. Food ethics has emerged as an important academic discipline and a branch of philosophy whose underlying goal is to define and elucidate food ethical problems. This article explores the ethics of food production and food consumption. It first presents a historical overview of food and the evolving gap between food production and consumption before discussing a number of quite pressing social concerns associated with the present-day food production system. It then considers concepts and approaches, including agrarianism and pluralism, in the context of two urgent food ethical problems: malnutrition and producing and eating meat. The article also examines food choice, the relationship between food ethics and politics, and the task of food ethics before concluding with a discussion of the future of food and food ethics.
This article reviews the main features of family policy as it has developed over time and the insights of scholarship. The interrelations between family, state, and market are specifically explained. Following this, the article moves on to consider the main contours of current reform, especially in light of the model of family policy being promoted by the European Union (EU) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). While there are divergences between the policy approaches of the two organizations and even within them, broad parameters unite them. The explanatory factors and the utility of the main approaches to understanding family policy are discussed. Societies approach the relationship between family, state, and market in rather different ways as the six countries studied demonstrate. There are a number of impulses for reform, drawing from a mix of economic, political, and social concerns.
Axel Dreher, Valentin F. Lang, and Sebastian Ziaja
This chapter reviews the aid effectiveness literature to assess whether foreign aid given to areas of limited statehood (ALS) can be expected to promote economic and social outcomes in the recipient country. It distinguishes between different types of aid, motives for granting it, recipient country policies and characteristics, and the modalities by which aid is delivered, as these factors have been argued to influence its effectiveness. This chapter then compares these properties between recipients most affected by limited statehood and those least affected. This allows us to assess the relative effectiveness of aid in countries with ALS. We conclude that on average aid given there is less likely to be effective than elsewhere. As countries with ALS, however, constitute a heterogeneous group, the specifics of individual countries and the types of aid given matter.
From Efficiency to Justice: Utility as the Informational Basis of Climate Strategies, and Some Alternatives
The aim of this article is to consider, from an ethical point of view, the role that economics should play in evaluating climate change strategies. It sets out a view of the strengths and weaknesses of economic evaluation of climate change strategies. The main strength of the economic approach is argued to be the formal framework through which it is able to compare human well-being across time, space, and states of nature, under alternative courses of action. But its main weakness is the substance of that comparison — utility, as the satisfaction of preferences for the aggregate consumption of goods and services. Furthermore, this article draws on the work of John Broome (1999) and Amartya Sen (1987), among others, to argue that the strength of the economic approach lies in its emphasis on interdependence and comparability of changes to human well-being.
This article argues that good governance is a concern if a society is in possession of the political, legal, and administrative institutions which make it possible to enact and implement policies that can broadly be understood as public goods. It suggests that, in many cases, good governance does not only refer to certain qualities of government institutions, but also to governments' interaction with the various sections of the private sector, and that it can be produced by the government alone, but that in many cases there is a need for collaboration with business and/or voluntary organizations. The article concludes that good governance is based in a normative theory which gives some orientation for what should be regarded as good.