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About Institutions, Mainly, but not Exclusively, Political  

Jean Blondel

Print publication date:
Jun 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article discusses the concept of institution by examining the components of an institution and the way in which institutionalization can increase or decrease. It considers the place ... More

Accountability and the Nonprofit Sector  

Steven Rathgeb Smith

Print publication date:
May 2014
Online publication date:
Aug 2014
Accountability in nonprofits is complicated and multi-faceted. Nonprofits can also be sites of vibrant civic engagement, community governance, and providers of valuable local services. ... More

Accountable Corporate Governance  

Sheldon Leader

Print publication date:
May 2014
Online publication date:
Aug 2014
This chapter explores the ways in which public standards of accountability are brought to bear on a nominally private institution: the commercial corporation. It considers several classic ... More

Agenda-Setting Theory: The Frontier Research Questions  

Maxwell McCombs and Sebastián Valenzuela

Print publication date:
Aug 2017
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
This chapter discusses contemporary directions of agenda-setting research. It reviews the basic concept of agenda setting, the transfer of salience from the media agenda to the public ... More

Agricultural Futures: The Politics of Knowledge  

Ian Scoones

Print publication date:
Jan 2015
Online publication date:
Aug 2014
Global assessments have become central to international debates on a range of key policy issues. They attempt to combine “expert assessment” with processes of “stakeholder consultation” in ... More

American Political Development and Political History  

Richard R. John

Print publication date:
Aug 2016
Online publication date:
Aug 2014
This essay traces the long and productive relationship between two genres of historical writing: American political development (or APD) and American political history. It is written ... More

American Political Parties: History, Voters, Critical Elections, and Party Systems  

Joel H. Silbey

Print publication date:
Jan 2010
Online publication date:
May 2010
This article provides a sweeping analysis of the history of American political parties. It specifically uses the lens of critical election theory to explore the scholarly treatment of the ... More

Analyzing American Political Development as It Happens  

Theda Skocpol

Print publication date:
Aug 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
Historical institutional scholars can analyze politics as it happens, not just developments long past. A powerful theoretical approach should give clear guidance about questions worth ... More

APD and Rational Choice  

Jeffery A. Jenkins

Print publication date:
Aug 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
Rational choice and American political development (APD) both emerged as responses to (perceived) limitations with the dominant behavioral tradition. While their critiques were based on ... More

Arms Control and Disarmament  

Keith Krause

Print publication date:
Jun 2018
Online publication date:
Aug 2018
This chapter evaluates the achievements and limitations of the United Nations (including the Conference on Disarmament) in the field of disarmament, emphasizing the UN’s role as part of ... More

Arms Control and Disarmament Diplomacy  

Rebecca Johnson

Print publication date:
Mar 2013
Online publication date:
Aug 2013
This article begins by discussing the four kinds of development that helped change the expectations, objectives, and conduct of modern disarmament diplomacy: (i) transformative advances in ... More

Audit Institutions  

Paul L. Posner and Asif Shahan

Print publication date:
May 2014
Online publication date:
Aug 2014
As the programs and commitment of the government have become more complex and specialized, the roles played by a wide range of accountability institutions has become more prominent. The ... More

Authoritarian Legislatures  

Paul Schuler and Edmund J. Malesky

Print publication date:
Jun 2014
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
This chapter examines legislatures in authoritarian regimes. It first reviews the history of how scholars of authoritarianism have conceived institutions, along with the theoretical ... More

Behavioral Approaches to the Study of Congress  

Bruce I. Oppenheimer

Print publication date:
Mar 2011
Online publication date:
May 2011
This article begins with Robert Peabody's Congress: Two Decades of Analysis. His essay serves as a benchmark to help with the evaluation of the progress in the behavioral study of ... More

Bicameral Representation  

Frances E. Lee

Print publication date:
Mar 2011
Online publication date:
May 2011
In James Madison's Federalist 51, he justified the framer's stand on dividing the national legislature into two branches to disperse and check political power. Reflecting on this ... More

Bicameralism  

John Uhr

Print publication date:
Jun 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article provides a review of the current research on bicameralism. It argues that there is no single model of bicameralism and no single explanatory theory. It shows that contemporary ... More

Bilateral Diplomacy  

Andrés Rozental and Alicia Buenrostro

Print publication date:
Mar 2013
Online publication date:
Aug 2013
Diplomacy is based on crafting ways to enhance relations among nations. Bilateral diplomacy determines when, where, and how a specific country-to-country relationship will become more ... More

Bretton Woods Institutions  

Ngaire Woods

Print publication date:
Jun 2018
Online publication date:
Aug 2018
The IMF and World Bank were created at the end of World War II to support economic stability, trade, and reconstruction around the world. Subsequently, they became strongly associated with ... More

Broadcasting versus Narrowcasting: Do Mass Media Exist in the Twenty-First Century?  

Miriam J. Metzger

Print publication date:
Aug 2017
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
This chapter explores the question of the continuing relevance of “mass media” due to recent technological changes in the media landscape. The chapter traces the history of media content ... More

Bureaucracy and the Administrative State  

Colin D. Moore

Print publication date:
Aug 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
Over the past thirty years, scholars in the field of American Political Development (APD) have made major advances in understanding the structure and development of the US administrative ... More

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