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The Accuracy of Opinion Polling and its Relation to its Future  

Michael Traugott

Print publication date:
May 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2011
This chapter discusses the concept of accuracy and how to measure it. It presents a chronology of the accuracy of the presidential pre-election polls during the 2008 election, and then ... More

Activists, Influence, and Representation in American Elections  

Walter J. Stone

Print publication date:
Jan 2010
Online publication date:
May 2010
This article describes the place of party activists in the electoral process, with attention to questions about whether and how they distort processes of electoral representation in the ... More

African American Legal Status from Reconstruction Law to the Nadir of Jim Crow: 1865–1919  

Lisa Crooms-Robinson

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
As Emancipation and Reconstruction eliminated much of the legal foundation of slavery, states and individuals became increasingly concerned about preserving the racial integrity of ... More

African American Legal Status from the Harlem Renaissance through World War II  

Lisa Crooms-Robinson

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
At the end of World War I, whites tried to put blacks back in their place. They found, however, that the place of African Americans had changed. The Harlem Renaissance represented the ... More

American Electoral Practices in Comparative Perspective  

Mark N. Franklin and Till Weber

Print publication date:
Feb 2010
Online publication date:
May 2010
This article concentrates on three areas in which American elections have features that are illuminated by voting behavior in countries with somewhat different features. These features are ... More

The American Voter  

William G. Jacoby

Print publication date:
Feb 2010
Online publication date:
May 2010
Ever since the appearance of The American Voter, there has been a general consensus among political scientists that three variables stand out as the most critical proximal influences on ... More

American Voter Turnout in Historical Perspective  

Michael P. McDonald

Print publication date:
Feb 2010
Online publication date:
May 2010
This article tries to understand American voter turnout rates in a historical perspective. In order to do this, the pool of eligible voters, the voting procedures, and the political ... More

American Women’s Environmental Activism: Motivations, Experiences, and Transformations  

Kayla Stover and Sherry Cable

Print publication date:
Jul 2017
Online publication date:
May 2017
Women have played instrumental, often leading, roles in the twentieth-century environmental movement. The sparse literature on women’s activism in the early twentieth century indicates that ... More

Anti-Feminist, Pro-Life, and Anti-ERA Women  

Ronnee Schreiber

Print publication date:
Jul 2017
Online publication date:
May 2017
For more than a century, women have organized for anti-feminist and conservative causes, including opposition to the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) and legal abortion. This chapter outlines ... More

Appealing to Diverse Electorates in the United States  

David M. Searle and Marisa Abrajano

Print publication date:
Jun 2020
Online publication date:
Oct 2019
As electorates around the world become increasingly diverse, addressing how electoral persuasion emerges is a major concern. Focusing on the United States, this chapter explores the ... More

Asian‐American Public Opinion  

Jane Junn, Taeku Lee, S. Karthick Ramakrishnan, and Janelle Wong

Print publication date:
May 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2011
This chapter studies the implications of the socioeconomic and demographic factors on public opinion among Asian Americans. The first part reviews the present social science research on ... More

Attitude Organization in the Mass Public: The Impact of Ideology and Partisanship  

William G. Jacoby

Print publication date:
May 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2011
This chapter studies the attitude structure or organization within American public opinion, paying special attention to the three general questions from the research literature. It first ... More

Battles over Abortion and Reproductive Rights: Movement Mobilization and Strategy  

Suzanne Staggenborg and Marie B. Skoczylas

Print publication date:
Jul 2017
Online publication date:
May 2017
This chapter examines the history of feminist struggles for abortion and reproductive rights in the United States. It analyzes why these issues continue to mobilize participants in opposing ... More

Big Government and Public Opinion  

Costas Panagopoulos and Robert Y. Shapiro

Print publication date:
May 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2011
This chapter explains how the public opinion towards big government in the United States can be best described, showing that the tensions between egalitarianism and individualism have ... More

The Black Public Sphere and Black Civil Society  

Michael C. Dawson

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article offers a brief discussion of the concepts of “civil society” and “public sphere” and investigates their utility for our thinking about African American political struggle. It ... More

Boycotting and Buycotting in Consumer Cultures: Political Consumerism in North America  

Meredith A. Katz

Print publication date:
Feb 2019
Online publication date:
Sep 2018
This chapter presents a historical overview of political consumerism in the United States and Canada, highlighting how societal and cultural shifts have influenced participation over time. ... More

Campaign Effects on Vote Choice  

D. Sunshine Hillygus

Print publication date:
Feb 2010
Online publication date:
May 2010
This article describes how far the literature of campaign effects on vote choice has come, and where it should go. It seems clear that the effects of campaigns are more constrained than ... More

Campaigning, Debating, Advertising  

Bradford H. Bishop and D. Sunshine Hillygus

Print publication date:
May 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2011
This chapter studies debating, advertising, and campaigning, the latter playing an important role in American democracy, first discussing the development of political campaigns and ... More

Class Differences in Social and Political Attitudes in the United States  

Leslie McCall and Jeff Manza

Print publication date:
May 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2011
This chapter takes a look at class differences in political and social attitudes in the United States. The first section briefly describes some of the modern and classical controversies ... More

The Comparative Advantage of State Interest Organization Research  

David Lowery and Virginia Gray

Print publication date:
Jan 2010
Online publication date:
May 2010
This article provides a contrast between the ‘explosion of large-n studies’ and the more modest progress in theory building and hypothesis testing in research on state-level interest ... More

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