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Economic Inequality and the Welfare State  

Gøsta Esping-Andersen and John Myles

Print publication date:
Feb 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article focuses on the welfare state, which includes social protection, health, education and training, housing, and social services, but can also be conceived more broadly to include ... More

Economic Inequality, Poverty, and Social Exclusion  

Brian Nolan and Marx Ive

Print publication date:
Feb 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
A large body of research on poverty in industrialized countries has been produced since poverty was ‘rediscovered’ in various rich countries in the 1960s and 1970s. This article provides an ... More

Equality: Its Justification, Nature, and Domain  

John E. Roemer

Print publication date:
Feb 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
During the last 40 years, political philosophers have made important advances in our understanding of why equality is valuable, and what kind of equality is important. This article ... More

Functional Distribution and Inequality  

Andrew Glyn

Print publication date:
Feb 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article focuses on the importance of functional distribution in discussions of economic inequality. Section 2 reviews theoretical perspectives on functional distribution while Section ... More

Gender and Economic Inequality  

Mary Gregory

Print publication date:
Feb 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article assesses the changing economic status of women, the forces driving it, and its implications for inequality between women and men and among women. Section 2 reviews women's ... More

Income Inequality in Richer and OECD Countries  

Andrea Brandolini and Timothy M. Smeeding

Print publication date:
Feb 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Many different variables can be used to evaluate the distribution of living standards in a society. These focal variables include monetary indicators, such as expenditure, income, and ... More

Inequality and Earnings Distribution  

Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn

Print publication date:
Feb 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article documents and provides explanations for levels of and trends in earnings inequality, with a central focus on international differences in these outcomes. It concentrates on ... More

Intragenerational Inequality and Intertemporal Mobility  

Richard V. Burkhauser, Brian Nolan, and Kenneth A. Couch

Print publication date:
Feb 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article discusses literature which uses panel data to measure the income patterns of individuals over their lifetimes, that is, intragenerational mobility. It begins with a detailed ... More

Introduction  

Scott Cunningham and Manisha Shah

Print publication date:
Oct 2016
Online publication date:
Dec 2016
This handbook explores the economics of prostitution and offers a working definition of prostitution that takes into account both remunerated professional sex work, as in the case of the ... More

Labor Market Transparency  

Eskil Wadensjö

Print publication date:
Oct 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2014
This chapter explores different aspects of information and transparency in the labor market. It begins by providing an overview of labor supply, labor demand, and labor remuneration and the ... More

Labor Markets in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Missing Reform  

Pablo Egaña and Alejandro Micco

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article is organized as follows. Section 2 shows the evolution of output and labor markets during the last decades in Latin America. Section 3 presents labor market reforms during this ... More

Low Pay  

Claudio Lucifora and Wiemer Salverda

Print publication date:
Feb 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article focuses on the significance of low pay, investigating: who is low paid and why, and who is low paying and why? This elaborates on two important aspects: the determinants of ... More

Overview of the Economic and Social Impacts of Gambling in the United States  

Douglas M. Walker

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This chapter provides an overview of empirical research on the economic and social impacts of gambling. Issues examined include the effects of casino gambling on economic growth; the ... More

The Political Economy of Inequality and Redistribution  

Nolan McCarty and Jonas Pontusson

Print publication date:
Feb 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
The literature on the politics of inequality and redistribution in advanced democracies has become very large in recent years. This article focuses on several areas where important new ... More

Poverty and Inequality: The Global Context  

Francisco H. G. Ferreira and Martin Ravallion

Print publication date:
Feb 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article summarizes the recent evidence on global poverty and inequality, including both developed and developing countries. Section 1 discusses poverty and inequality data and presents ... More

Productivity Measurement in the Public Sector  

W. Erwin Diewert

Print publication date:
Sep 2018
Online publication date:
Sep 2018
Governments either provide various goods and services at no cost or at highly subsidized prices. It is usually possible to measure the quantities of these government-sector outputs and ... More

Prospects for Achieving Equality in Market Economies  

John E. Roemer

Print publication date:
Feb 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article considers the possibility of attaining equality in principle. It begins by proposing the degree of equality that we can expect or hope to achieve in the foreseeable future. It ... More

Prostitution Policy  

G. Immordino and F. F. Russo

Print publication date:
Oct 2016
Online publication date:
Dec 2016
The goal of this chapter is to propose a simple mathematical framework to study the effects of different prostitution policies on the total quantity of prostitution exchanged in a market ... More

Social Security Reforms in Latin America  

Andras Uthoff

Print publication date:
Jul 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
The development of social security systems in Latin America has been, both historically and by country, strongly influenced by different views of the role of government. This chapter ... More

Top Incomes  

Andrew Leigh

Print publication date:
Feb 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article deals with the issue of how high incomes have been changing over long time periods for many rich countries. Section 2 discusses the basic methodology used for creating recent ... More

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