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Adam Smith and Marx  

Spencer Pack

Print publication date:
May 2013
Online publication date:
Jul 2013
This chapter outlines Marx’s general attitude towards Smith. It argues that Marx was a close reader of and that he generally admired Smith’s work. The chapter outlines how Marx criticizes various ... More

Adam Smith on Women  

Maureen Harkin

Print publication date:
May 2013
Online publication date:
Jul 2013
Women are largely absent from the economic system Smith lays out in . This account of women in Smith thus focuses primarily on analysis of and its discussion of women as subjects and objects of ... More

Canadian Prostitution Law: History and Market Impacts  

Lauren Jones

Print publication date:
Oct 2016
Online publication date:
Dec 2016
This chapter reviews the history of prostitution law in Canada. It begins with a review of relevant literature on the history and policy of the sex trade in Canada, along with current laws ... More

Democratization and Civic Capital  

Luigi Guiso and Paolo Pinotti

Print publication date:
Mar 2013
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
This chapter documents a sharp reversal in electoral participation between the North and the South of Italy after the 1912 enfranchisement which extended voting rights from a limited élite ... More

The Effects of the Protestant Reformation on Human Capital  

Sascha O. Becker and Ludger Woessmann

Print publication date:
Jan 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Max Weber's (1904) thesis that the Protestant Reformation was instrumental in facilitating industrial capitalism in Western Europe is generally viewed as the “most famous link between ... More

Human Capital  

Giuseppe Bertola and Paolo Sestito

Print publication date:
Mar 2013
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
The chapter reviews the evolution of educational institutions and outcomes over the 150 years since Italy's unification and discusses their interaction with national and regional growth ... More

Islam and Human Capital Formation: Evidence from Premodern Muslim Science  

Eric Chaney

Print publication date:
Jan 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Given the rich scientific tradition of the Muslim world, current levels of scientific production in predominantly Muslim countries are surprisingly low. A recent survey of the state of ... More

Migrations  

Matteo Gomellini and Cormac Ó Gráda

Print publication date:
Mar 2013
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
This chapter is an analytic account of Italian emigration and immigration between 1861 and the present. After describing the economic and demographic characteristics of emigrants, it ... More

Religion and the Spread of Human Capital and Political Institutions: Christian Missions as a Quasi-Natural Experiment  

Robert D. Woodberry

Print publication date:
Jan 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Although often ignored, religion has profoundly shaped political and economic conditions around the world. This claim is suggested by three historical divergences: a divergence between ... More

Religious Norms, Human Capital, and Money Lending in Jewish European History  

Maristella Botticini and Zvi Eckstein

Print publication date:
Jan 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Circa 1000, the main occupations of the large Jewish community in Muslim Spain and of the small Jewish communities in southern Italy, France, and Germany were local trade and long-distance ... More

Sidewalk Queens: The Economics of Popular Prostitution in Fin-de-Siècle Paris  

Alexandre Frondizi and Simon Porcher

Print publication date:
Oct 2016
Online publication date:
Dec 2016
This chapter provides an in-depth historical analysis of prostitution markets in Paris during the 19th century. More specifically, it explores the economic rationalities of the different ... More

Standards of Living  

Andrea Brandolini and Giovanni Vecchi

Print publication date:
Mar 2013
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
The chapter describes the evolution of the Italians' well-being during the 150 years since the country's unification. The progress in material standard of living has been substantial, with ... More

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