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The African Enigma: The Mystery of Tall African Adults Despite Low National Incomes Revisited  

Alexander Moradi and Kalle Hirvonen

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Oct 2015
African adult populations are remarkably tall for the low income levels that prevail at the country level. The average African woman is about 158.5 cm tall, whereas the low gross domestic ... More

Biological Health Risks and Economic Development  

Elizabeth Frankenberg, Jessica Ho, and Duncan Thomas

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Oct 2015
With populations aging and the epidemic of obesity spreading across the globe, global health risks are shifting toward noncommunicable diseases. Innovative biomarker data from recently ... More

The Development of Brazilian Education: A Tale of Lost Opportunities?  

Claudio de Moura Castro

Print publication date:
Oct 2018
Online publication date:
Aug 2018
This chapter examines the evolution of education in Brazil over the long term. It is established that historical circumstances allied to successive policy failures help account for ... More

Dimensions of African Inequality  

Arne Bigsten

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Oct 2014
This chapter discusses dimensions of inequality in sub-Saharan Africa and their causes. It starts with a review of the empirical evidence about inequality during the colonial period as ... More

Distributions in Motion: Economic Growth, Inequality, and Poverty Dynamics  

Francisco H. G. Ferreira

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
This article examines the relationships among growth, poverty, and inequality. If poverty is measured via an absolute poverty line, then the change in the poverty rate can be decomposed into two ... More

Drugs and Vaccines for Developing Countries  

Adrian Towse, Eric Keuffel, Hannah E. Kettler, and David B. Ridley

Print publication date:
Apr 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article sets out the context for the problem of insufficient affordable medicines to address health issues in developing countries. It also highlights some of the drivers of recent ... More

East Asia on the Rise: The Anthropometric History of China, Japan, and Korea  

Daniel Jong Schwekendiek

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Body mass index, weight, and stature are reliable indicators of biological living standards. Although most studies in anthropometric history focus on Western nations, East Asian countries ... More

Economics and Human Biology in Latin America  

Moramay Lopez Alonso

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Jan 2016
This chapter examines scholarship in the field of economics and human biology from the pre-Columbian era to the present in the context of Latin America. This literature’s main themes ... More

The Economics of Malaria in Africa  

Jean-Claude Berthélemy and Josselin Thuilliez

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Jan 2015
Malaria still claims a heavy human and economic toll, specifically in sub-Saharan Africa. Even though the causality between malaria and poverty is presumably bi-directional, malaria plays ... More

Education  

Miguel Urquiola

Print publication date:
Jul 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This chapter reviews the progress and remaining challenges in terms of raising educational quantity and quality in Latin America, focusing on primary and secondary (K-12) schooling, ... More

Female Heights and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence  

Deborah Oxley

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Female heights matter. They matter for girls’ and women’s health and productivity, as a measure of inequality, and—significantly—as a bridge transferring welfare across generations. This ... More

Female Trust in Government and Gender Income Inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Juliet U. Elu and Gregory N. Price

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
This article examines the extent to which a regional government's ability to secure and enforce property rights for females in sub-Saharan Africa matters for a particular type of inequality—regional ... More

Fiscal Rules in India: are they Effective?  

Willem H. Buiter and Urjit R. Patel

Print publication date:
Mar 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article considers India's experience with fiscal (responsibility) rules during the past decade. The article first provides an analytical foundation on how to think about debt ... More

Health and Health Care Policy in India: The Case for Quality of Care  

Jishnu Das and Jeffrey Hammer

Print publication date:
Mar 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article argues that despite high private expenditures on health in India, policy discourse reflects a constant preoccupation with the public sector. Even historically, envisioning a ... More

Health Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries  

Anne Mills

Print publication date:
Apr 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article focuses on the limited attention paid to the economic dimensions of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) health systems relative to those of high-income countries, and the ... More

Health, Growth, and Development in Africa  

Germano Mwabu

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Mar 2015
This chapter examines the relationship between health, growth and development in Africa using evidence assembled from micro- and macroeconomic studies over the period 1960–2000. This ... More

Inclusive Growth and Developmental Governance: The Next African Frontiers  

Richard Joseph

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
There has been a sustained increase in economic growth in Africa since the mid-1990s. However, most economies have not yet experienced transformation to greater productivity and global ... More

Political Economy of Infrastructure Spending in India  

Stuti Khemani

Print publication date:
Mar 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article attempts to understand a significant puzzle in the political economy of infrastructure spending in India: the coexistence of low public spending on infrastructure (as a ... More

Poverty: Shifting Fortunes and New Perspectives  

Abebe Shimeles

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
Growth has been high and widespread in the last decade in Africa. Whether this shift in Africa’s fortune has impacted poverty has been a subject of controversy. This chapter brings into ... More

Poverty and Low Earnings in the Developing World  

Gary S. Fields

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
This article examines the relationship between poverty and labor markets in the developing-country context. It details the labor markets and types of work in which the poor are engaged. It then ... More

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