Samantha J. Rayner
This chapter on academic publishing covers the origins of the field; the impact of the two major drivers of change—the printing press and the Internet—on the spread of knowledge; Open Access; the monograph; university presses; academic libraries; commercial academic publishers; trade publishers and the cross-over book; peer review; journals; HE textbook publishing. It looks at all these areas through the lens of change, stressing the need for greater connectivity between the various communities of practice involved in the academic publishing field, and underlines the historic and existing collaborative and innovative strengths it contains.
Ben Ross Schneider
Business groups combine empirically a variety of features that have fascinated researchers from a range of disciplines. However, debate and theorizing, both generally and in relation to politics, are unlikely to progress unless the features of interest are organized in different disciplines which are clearly distinguished from each other. At a minimum, distinctions are necessary among three types of business groups—informal, pyramidal, and diversified—and the theoretical approaches associated with each. Much of this article, especially the analysis of business groups as objects of policy, focuses on the diversification dimension. Yet, not all groups pursue equally politicized strategies. Business groups vary over time, across countries, and within countries in terms of what could be called degrees of political intimacy.
Jenny Harrow and Susan D. Phillips
This chapter discusses the context of nonprofit organizations, which are under pressure to demonstrate how they act for the benefit of the public in transparent ways with obvious impact. It notes that questions of ownership and accountability have combined in nonprofit corporate governance, and that the effect aims to address stakeholder relationships and corporate governance systems more effectively. It argues that nonprofit governance theories represent a wide range of lenses that can support environmental contingencies and the increased hybridization of corporate forms and business models within the nonprofit sector, as well as promoting accountability. The chapter also determines whether increased state and societal regulation will tend to improve corporate governance practices or create a mess that allows governance mediocrity.
Antony Drew, Gordon Redding, and Trevor Harley
This chapter acts as a bridge between the previous chapters which focus on education and societal evolution plus the main types of university seen in terms of strategic autonomy; and the following chapters which address the large-scale global changes and their operational implications, the management of universities in the new conditions, and the societal implications of the changing world of higher education. This chapter adopts a strategic management perspective to highlight the critical factors and forces affecting HE now and into the foreseeable future. By examining the external environment in terms of both the macro (external) environment and meso (more immediate) environment, it highlights the key factors and forces of which policy makers, government officials, leaders and managers in universities, industry and civic society need to be cognizant, if they are to ensure HE continues to be relevant to the twenty-first century.
This article considers the role of consultants in public service reforms in different European and North American countries. It first studies the supply and demand for consultants. It then provides the findings of existing research on the effects of the growing use of consultants in the public sector on the consulting industry and the government. This article also considers the impact consultants and governments have had on each other.
D. Bruce Johnstone
HE costs are driven upwards beginning at the institutional level with rising per-student costs. Rising unit costs are then magnified at the national or system level in most countries by surging enrolments. The result is the global reality of HE costs and revenue needs—especially in low and middle income countries with surging youth populations, ineffective taxation, and politically compelling alternative revenue needs—increasing annually at rates far exceeding the increase of costs generally or the ability of government revenue to increase commensurately. Governments typically seek solutions by increasing revenues from tuition and other fees and alternative forms of cost-sharing, which can raise intense political opposition, or by cutting costs which raises opposition from faculty, staff, and university leaders opposed to the loss of employment or radical changes in the traditional paradigms of instruction. The chapter then explores eight common misunderstandings about these cost dilemmas and discusses the advantages, disadvantages, and cultural bases of some of the conventional policy responses.
Maurits van Rooijen
This chapter considers the higher education leader’s perspective in conjunction with the following themes: (1) the leader as a change agent, responding to mega trends (globalization, digitalization and the demands of knowledge-based economies); (2) the challenge of choosing the right gear of change (evolution, rapid evolution, revolution) whilst executing transformations; (3) the recognition at all levels (macro, meta, micro) of the value of diversity, and understanding that institutions are typically a blend of three ultra-types (knowledge for the sake of knowledge; utilitarian, accountable institution; sustainable enterprises) and the importance of matching leadership; (4) understanding the alignment of ‘ABC’ (academic aspiration, business, communities) whilst enlarging C through emotional engagement; and (5) the imperative to secure funding to achieve strategic objectives and institutional sustainability (fundraising, public–private partnerships, cooperative constructions). Current funding realities suggest big is truly beautiful but this risks diminishing diversity.
Alex Holzman and Sarah Kalikman Lippincott
Public and academic libraries have been among the very best customers for publishers. The publisher–library relationship is effectively symbiotic with mutual benefits. However, the digital revolution, changing cost structures, long-term declines in library funding, open access, changes to copyright, fair use, and the first-sale doctrine have unsettled longstanding practices. Perhaps inevitably these transformations have led to libraries experimenting with establishing their own publishing initiatives, helping patrons to publish their own work, or in the academic setting partnering with existing university presses to develop new publishing models. The responsibility for curation, previously largely resting with libraries, has now become a responsibility shared to varying extents with publishers. —However, the way publishers and libraries interact is changing—considerably.
Gordon Redding, Antony Drew, and Trevor Harley
Universities are a distinct organizational type, evolved for a particular set of purposes and resting essentially on the allocation of influence to scholars, within a supporting administrative system. This traditional structure is now threatened by forces that have risen on a wave of global demand never before experienced. University management is now under severe pressure to reconcile the earlier rationale with the recent pressures. This is an under-researched managerial challenge. To address it lessons are drawn from a general theory of executive duty in large complex organizations undergoing change. At the core of this is the problem of retaining willing cooperation with the organization’s purposes by its key members. A current partial response to this challenge is reported. Certain more universal lessons about moral legitimacy and executive authority within strategic management are also drawn.
Policy, driven by simple readings of human capital theory, expects universities to deliver skilled labour to drive productivity growth and competitiveness. This approach ignores the wider role of learning in HE. England has tended to follow a market-driven approach, with weakly coordinated relationships between employers and HE, whereas Scotland has sought to provide more structured institutional support for this interaction. In both countries, there are significant issues over the ability to forecast future skill need, to match supply with demand, and to enlist employers in co-production and co-funding. In addition, there are ongoing debates about employability, a ‘war for talent’, and how best to structure interactions between business and universities.
The first public–private partnership (PPP) motorway in Australia was open to traffic more than two decades ago, and yet no comprehensive evaluation of PPPs in the road transport sector has been sighted. It is the intention of this chapter to fill this gap. Although there have been noticeable advancements in contract design and use of incentive mechanisms to optimize risk allocation between the public and private sectors, Australian PPP motorways have yet to deliver an optimal outcome. It is questionable whether the current risk-shifting approach in the present PPP paradigm is suitable for providing infrastructure-based road services where long-term service provision is a requirement. In such cases, a proactive risk management approach may be preferred.
In many respects quality originated as a collection of poorly theorized methods which were developed through practice in the workplace. The “quality movement” was built by adherents who tried to provide a theoretical basis and ideology from mostly atheoretical practical tools. In transferring these methods to the public sector, a similar industry has evolved, developing an ideology and packages of tools for the less competitive and culturally different environment of this sector. The purpose of this article is to give a balanced and critical overview of the different ideas and methods of quality assurance and improvement as applied in the public sector. It describes approaches which have been used in multi-professional services, such as health care; in single quasi-professional services, such as education, police, fire, library, and social services; and other government services such as clerical services and industrial-type services which include a physical goods products such as refuse collection and road maintenance.
This article aims to examine the various definitions and categories of the concept of public–private partnerships (PPPs), the nature of the recent debate in the disciplines of economics, political science, and sociology, the business side of the partnerships in terms of the companies involved worldwide, and the regulatory perspective from a government point of view of how to steer, govern, and regulate partnerships. The article closes with some remarks on future research agendas. The first section deals with definition challenges. Some scholars conceive of PPPs in a very broad manner that tries to encompass nearly all sustained activities between business actors and formal political actors from traditional political institutions.
Martin Lodge and Christopher Hood
Regulation is a word that has gained a wide currency in discussions of public sector reform over the past thirty years or so. Many have claimed that increased formal regulation of public sector activity reflects deep-seated ‘modernist’ changes in the functioning of state machinery. This article scrutinises regulation within government. To put the modern use of the R-word (to signify oversight of government) into context, this article begins by pointing out the relatively modest incidence and growth of articles using this term in some of the leading international journals on executive government and law and society over the last decade. This article questions whether accounts, are still able to offer much leverage over the contemporary regulation of government by itself. It also suggests that past commentators may have been rather too optimistic about the ease with which government could regulate the private sector.
The focus of this article is the strategic use of regulation by industry and regulators, and the rules and procedures that have been and can be put in place to reduce wasteful attempts to ‘game the system’. Regulation exists to get industry, organisations, and individuals to modify their behaviour to gain compliance with the law, and ultimately to achieve desired outcomes. Yet it operates in a world where the law is imperfect, enforcement and compliance costly, resources limited, and the regulator has discretion. Regulation has two other features — it generates winners and losers; and its creation and enforcement are the outcome of political and legal processes. Investing in rule change can be as lucrative as maximising profits within the rules. It often ‘pays’ the industry to invest in trying to influence and respond to legislators and regulators to gain favourable regulation, or to minimise the impact of unfavourable regulation.
This article aims to emphasize the economic importance of the service sector, to explain those factors which make services different from products, to apply strategic management concepts and frameworks to service organizations, and to consider the causes and strategic implications of the internationalization of services. Are there any real differences between products and services? Is it appropriate to manage service businesses in the same way as manufacturing businesses? Can the concepts and frameworks with which strategists analyse industries, firms, and competition be applied unchanged and as effectively to services? These questions are the starting point for this article. The article takes the view that services do differ from products in ways that can, and should, make a difference to strategists.