Paige H. Fisher, Susan Nolan, and Magdalena Galazyn
This chapter offers recommendations, evidence-based when possible, on teaching abnormal psychology in an effective and engaging manner. In the first section, we address issues related to the content of an Abnormal Psychology course. We outline the traditional content areas, as well as current topics that are often underemphasized, such as controversies with diagnosis, and international and cross-cultural issues. In the second section, we provide an overview of pedagogical tools that are particularly relevant for an abnormal psychology course, including the use of case material, role-play, and simulation; we provide suggestions on how to use these tools to create a stimulating and interactive classroom. In the third section, we outline ethical issues that can emerge when teaching abnormal psychology, such as informed consent and classroom management of sensitive topics, and offer suggestions for creating an ethical classroom environment.
Kelly B. Haskard-Zolnierek and Summer L. Williams
This chapter outlines the ways in which depression and other mental health issues influence adherence and health-behavior change. Patient adherence and health-behavior change are defined and described. Common mental health issues including depression and anxiety are described as well as the prevalence of nonadherence to treatment for these conditions. Next, comorbidity of physical and mental health issues are discussed, such as depression co-occurring with various chronic diseases, providing evidence of the effects of mental health on adherence and health-behavior change. The mechanisms for the relationship of mental health to adherence and health-behavior change are discussed through the framework of the information-motivation-strategy model, with adherence being affected due to cognitive factors, motivational factors, and resource-related factors. The chapter concludes with a discussion of what health-care professionals can do to address and reduce this barrier to adherence and health-behavior change.
Jeffrey J. Wilson and Megan Janoff
Adolescents with substance use disorders (SUDs) have the highest proportion of co-occurring psychiatric disorders (CODs) compared to other age cohorts. Externalizing psychiatric disorders, such as conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and attention-deficit disorders, are most commonly associated with adolescent SUDs compared to older adults with SUD. The developmental psychopathology of SUD is reviewed. Categories of COD are reviewed, in turn, beginning with externalizing or disruptive behavior disorders. Disruptive behavior disorders are critical to the developmental psychopathology of adolescent SUD. Studies of co-occurring depressive and bipolar disorders are then considered in detail, examining the relationship between SUD and these particular CODs. Finally, the relationships between anxiety, thought, eating and personality disorders, and adolescent SUD are examined.
Frederick G. Lopez
For over three decades, attachment theory has served as a versatile and generative framework for studying how the dynamics of close, enduring emotional bonds with others (i.e., attachments) affect psychosocial growth and development across the life span. Indeed, in recent years, a substantial literature on adult attachment has emerged that has probed the nature, correlates, and consequences of security in one's intimate adult relationships. Although this literature initially emphasized the adverse impacts of attachment insecurity on human functioning, contemporary studies are increasingly adopting a positive psychological perspective that explores the contributions of secure adult relationships to the promotion and maintenance of healthy and adaptive behavior within and across multiple life domains. This chapter highlights this shift in emphasis by first considering how the positive psychology roots of attachment theory, as well as advances in the conceptualization and measurement of adult attachment security, support these initiatives. Following this, a selection of recent studies specifically examining associations between adult attachment security and such relevant constructs as hope, optimism, positive affect, parenting and caregiving competence, academic and career-related motivation, altruistic behavior, and existential well-being are reviewed. Taken together, findings from this emergent literature suggest that adult attachment security can serve as a major organizational construct in the continuing development of positive psychology. Finally, some potentially fruitful directions for future research on the synergistic contributions of adult attachment security to human competence and well-being are briefly discussed.
Adult Psychosocial Adjustment to Visible Differences: Physical and Psychological Predictors of Variation
Timothy P. Moss and Ben Rosser
Gail M. Williamson and Juliette Christie
Contrary to popular belief, the majority of adults over the age of 65 are physically and psychologically healthy. They are not cognitively deficient, socially isolated, or lonely, nor do they drain society's resources. They are aging well, and to the extent that they are able to engage in valued activities, they will continue to do so. A key component of adapting to growing older is the ability to maintain the sense of personal control that can be threatened by normal aging processes. The Activity Restriction Model of Depressed Affect proposes that to age successfully is to maintain physical and cognitive functioning via engagement in personally meaningful activities. Indeed, activity restriction—or the inability to continue normal activities that often follows stressful life events such as debilitating illness—is a major factor in poorer mental health outcomes. Potential contributors to activity restriction and depression are identified. Interventions to reduce activity restriction in older adults should focus on promoting manageable activities, taking into consideration individual differences in functional, psychological, and social resources.
Marika Tiggemann and Julie Slevec
Lucie Baker and Eyal Gringart
Claude Richard and Marie-Thérèse Lussier
The clinical settings in which physicians and other healthcare providers must apply their scientific knowledge and technical expertise are diverse and require further adaptive capacities on their part. Thus, the science and the art, although often opposed, are in fact complementary and together define excellence in practice in which the art is not, as stated by Saunders, merely part of the medical humanities but it is integral to medicine as an applied science. This essay addresses those dimensions of medical talk described as the “art” of the medical encounter, how these impact the quality of information gathering and provision, and how, in turn, this influences patients’ understanding and recall. The notion of the “art of information exchange” is reframed as a “medical dialogue” using communication skills and dimensions not traditionally thought of when referring to the “art” of medical information exchange.
Phillip R. Shaver and Mario Mikulincer
Amori Yee Mikami
Norman B. Schmidt
R. Michael Bagby, Amanda Uliaszek, Tara M. Gralnick, and Nadia Al-Dajani
The purpose of this chapter is to summarize and discuss the complex relationship between Five Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and clinical (Axis I) psychopathology, including depressive, bipolar, anxiety, obsessive–compulsive, eating, schizophrenia and psychotic, trauma and stress-related, and substance use disorders. Considered herein will be the alternative forms of relationship, including vulnerability, common cause, pathoplasty, complication/scar, and spectrum. This chapter will highlight the necessity for well-designed, longitudinal studies aimed at elucidating the complex relationships between the FFM and clinical disorders. Consistent research supports Neuroticism as a vulnerability factor to certain disorders, even sharing genetic etiology. However, there are also important contributions for each of the other four domains. The majority of this research is in the area of mood and anxiety disorders. Expanding these studies to include other forms of psychopathology could help identify common personality vulnerabilities to psychopathology, as well as unique predictors of certain constellations of symptoms.
Leslie R. Martin
Nonadherence represents a significant challenge not only to personal health and well-being but also to the health-care system as a whole. The Information-Motivation-Strategy model, which forms the organizational framework for this volume, provides a simple yet comprehensive heuristic for addressing the significant and complex problem of nonadherence, emphasizing within each component the vital role of communication between the clinician and patient.