Johanna K.P. Greeson and Allison E. Thompson
The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a significant developmental stage. When foster youth age out of the child welfare system, they are at risk of having to transition without family support. This chapter applies the life course perspective to describe the theoretical and contextual foundation that explains the hardships foster youth experience when emancipated from the US child welfare system. Next, the theoretical basis for natural mentoring among foster youth is explored using the resiliency perspective to frame the discussion. Then, current research on natural mentoring among foster youth is reviewed. Implications are drawn for US child welfare practice, policy, and research with respect to how to improve outcomes for youth who age out of foster care through the cultivation of natural mentoring relationships. The chapter concludes with an examination of systems in place to support transitioning foster youth from England, Israel, and Australia.
Miri Scharf and Shmuel Shulman
The chapter discusses the nature of sibling relationships during emerging adulthood and the interplay between developmental processes and sibling relationships. Past unresolved conflicts and continuous rivalry might lead to conflictual and alienated relationships. However, greater maturity and separate residence might induce a kind of rapprochement. Emerging adults’ acknowledgment of their need to maintain family bonds, combined with greater emotional and cognitive maturity, might enable them to reconstruct their siblinghood. Family structure, history, personality, and culture contribute to the intensity and quality of sibling relationships. Considering the challenges young people face in the current societal context, siblings are among the closet kin to whom one can turn in stressful conditions. The authors present narratives of emerging adults demonstrating possible factors that influence the sibling bond, the possible influence of culture and more distal variables (sibling relationships of the respondents’ parents), and suggestions for future research and implications for practice.
Michelle A. Skinner, Cynthia A. Berg, and Bert N. Uchino
This chapter reviews research on the contextual variation that is seen in how older adults experience and regulate emotion evoked by interpersonal problem solving. It begins by exploring the general developmental shift toward the experience of more positive emotion and how this shift may be dependent on context and problem constraints by utilizing the concepts of Strengths and Vulnerability Integration. It examines four different everyday problem-solving contexts in middle-aged and older adult married couples and then considers the physiological processes that might be related to emotion regulation during adulthood.
Isaac Prilleltensky and Graham B. Stead
Critical psychology emerged as a reaction to (a) the oppressive turn in individualism, (b) the negative repercussions of the status quo on large sectors of the population, and (c) psychology's witting or unwitting complicity in upholding the societal status quo. The critical psychology movement questions psychology, and society, on the basis of moral, epistemic, and professional shortcomings. This chapter reviews critical psychology's reservations about dominant assumptions in these three domains, and offers an alternative set of principles designed to advance well-being in persons, communities, psychological science, and professional practice. Following an alternative conception of well-being, this chapter applies it to the world of work. It reviews problematic assumptions pertaining to the moral, epistemic, and professional values impacting the world of work, and offers theoretical and practical recommendations for advancing the well-being of workers, organizations, and communities. Humanitarian work psychology and critical management studies offer valuable avenues for merging critical psychology with the world of work.
Cross-Over Analysis: Using the Five Factor Model and NEO Personality Inventory-3 for Assessing Compatibility and Conflict in Couples
Ralph L. Piedmont and Thomas E. Rodgerson
This chapter describes the application of the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality description for couple therapy; more specifically, cross over analysis. Cross over analysis concerns a comparison of each person’s self-description with the description provided by the spouse. The FFM offers a compelling basis and means for a couple therapeutic analysis and intervention. It provides a clear, simple means to understand language for describing motivations and conflict that couples can easily understand and apply. Second, the availability of a validated rater form provides an effective and compelling medium for couples to express their own expectations about each other. Finally, an FFM cross over analysis can provide for clinicians’ insight into the motivational forces that may be creating conflict and dissatisfaction for the couple.
Marcia Baxter Magolda and Kari B. Taylor
Many emerging adults find themselves navigating the complex transition from adolescence to adulthood while enrolled in college. The key to navigating the demands of college (and emerging adulthood) is not simply what decisions one makes but also how one makes them. This chapter foregrounds college student development research regarding the developmental capacities that underlie young adults’ decision-making processes. Drawing upon two longitudinal studies of college student and young adult development, the authors show how young adults move from uncritically following external formulas learned in childhood toward gaining the capacity for self-authorship—a journey that involves developing internal criteria for crafting one’s identities, relationships, and beliefs and yields the ability to navigate external demands. The authors emphasize that diverse combinations of personal characteristics, experiences, and meaning-making capacities yield diverse pathways toward self-authorship. They also highlight how higher education can promote self-authorship and explore further research to better understand self-authorship’s relevance across cultures.
Karen L. Fingerman and Jenjira J. Yahirun
This chapter examines emerging adulthood within the context of family, with emphasis on how emerging adults’ relationships with their parents today compare in the past and how parents help young adults in attaining markers of adulthood such as finishing college, finding a partner, or starting a family. It begins by considering past and recent trends in emerging adults’ relationships with their parents, paying particular attention to three aspects of these relationships: contact, tangible and nontangible support, and coresidence. It then looks at changes in parental involvement with young adults and the factors underlying these changes. The chapter also discusses the roles or aspects of emerging adults’ lives in which parents are most involved and how effective such involvement is in fostering successful transitions in those areas. Finally, it analyzes theories about overparenting and the benefits of parental involvement.
Susan M. Sheridan, Amanda Moen, and Sonya Bhatia
Family-centered positive psychology is a framework for working with children and families that promotes strengths and builds capacity within individuals and systems. As an extension, family-centered services (FCS) focus on assessing family needs and supporting family goals using a strengths-based approach rather than a deficit-focused approach. In this chapter, we will provide a definition and description of the guiding principles associated with family-centered services. Two interventions aimed at building family strengths through collaborative family partnership models are the Getting Ready intervention and Conjoint Behavioral Consultation. These interventions and their research bases are described. Future research directions are presented, as understanding which components of family-centered services are most efficacious will influence the design and implementation of family-centered service delivery.
David A. Schroeder and William G. Graziano
This chapter provides a broad introduction and overview of the field of prosocial behavior, that is, acts that serve to benefit another person. It examines the following questions: What are the different types of prosocial behavior? Why do people act in prosocial ways? Who is most likely to help another? When are prosocial actions displayed? A multilevel approach to the answers of these questions is taken, considering the many and diverse factors operating at the microlevels, mesolevels, and macrolevels of analysis. The contributions of four major research areas to the understanding of prosocial behavior are explored: evolutionary psychology, developmental psychology, personality and individual differences, and social psychology.
Lan Wang, Douglas T. Hall, and Lea Waters
This chapter discusses “identity-based retirement,” a psychosocial process of identity transition and search for meaning. We see the career as a series of short learning cycles, mini versions of the lifelong career stage model of Super (1957). Retirement is a recursive process of intentions, actions, and outcomes, through which new behaviors generalize to involvement in new roles, and new subidentities associated with retirement (Hall, 1971, 2002). This process entails communicating internally with the self and externally with significant others. Factors in the individual (self-comparisons and protean career orientation) and relational factors (developmental networks and reference groups) influence the identity and goal-setting process, making the person both the agent and the target of the change process that is retirement. Thus the necessity to be self-anchored during retirement gives people the opportunity to find personal meaning in ways that step outside of their previous working lives.
Gender and work are intimately interwoven concepts. The gendered context of work, including sexism and discrimination, has historically excluded access to work for women; similarly, gender socialization experiences have influenced how women and men construct meaning around work. The purpose of this chapter is to utilize an inclusive, psychology-of-working framework to examine how work intersects with both female and male gender roles. The complex manner in which working and gender roles interface will be explored, along with an emphasis on understanding how socialization and sexist practices create limitations for individuals seeking and adjusting to work.
Sanna Thompson, Kristin Ferguson, Kimberly Bender, Stephanie Begun, and Yeonwoo Kim
Navigating the transition from adolescence to adulthood is challenging for homeless emerging adults due to the absence of basic resources, sexual and physical victimization, psychological challenges, and unstable living conditions. To address the developmental issues associated with homelessness, this chapter utilizes a social estrangement framework to describe homeless emerging adults’ institutional/societal disafﬁliation, human capital, identiﬁcation with the homeless lifestyle, and psychological dysfunction. These terms are used to identify the developmental milestones associated with becoming adults in unconventional circumstances and during the nontraditional developmental processes experienced by homeless emerging adults. Intervention approaches are discussed in terms of services and barriers to care for homeless emerging adults. Policies are discussed that highlight the need for additional attention to service needs, mental health challenges, and criminal justice involvement of this population of emerging adults.
Jennifer S. Cheavens and Madison M. Guter
The strong association between hope and optimal psychological functioning has been empirically demonstrated repeatedly over the past two decades. In an effort to capitalize on these associations, researchers have developed and tested hope interventions aimed to increase hopeful thinking and optimal psychological functioning. Results are promising, suggesting that hope is malleable and that hope therapy reduces symptoms of distress and increases in well-being. Further, hope has been examined as a predictor of treatment success and data suggest that those with higher hope may do better in various treatments than their low-hope counterparts and that changes in hope across the course of therapy are associated with simultaneous improvements in psychological functioning. In future research, it will be important to identify specific therapeutic interventions that predict increases in hope and to determine whether or not hopeful thought is a mechanism of change in psychotherapy interventions.
Gráinne M. Fitzsimons and Joanna Anderson
This chapter describes research on interpersonal cognition—cognitive, affective, and motivational processes directed at or shaped by close others. The authors adopt a goal-based perspective on interpersonal cognition, assuming that interpersonal cognition serves, at the broadest level, to help individuals fulfill their need to belong to social relationships. The main tasks of interpersonal cognition are divided into those targeted at seeking, understanding, and maintaining relationships. The “Seeking Relationships” section describes research on attraction and on how fundamental processes are shaped by the desire to form relationships with others. The “Understanding Others” section describes research on how individuals perceive and judge others and how individual differences can shape these processes. The “Maintaining Relationships” section describes research on everyday interdependence (the effects of just being interdependent with others on the self) and strategic maintenance (the goals individuals pursue to protect important relationships).
Mark A. Whisman and Briana L. Robustelli
This chapter explores the association between intimate relationship functioning and psychopathology. It begins with a review of the literature on intimate relationship functioning and how it is correlated with the prevalence and incidence of psychopathology, focusing on the results of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. It then considers the literature on couple-based interventions as treatments for specific forms of psychopathology such as mood disorders, substance use disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, and anorexia nervosa. The chapter focuses on three couple-based interventions, namely, cognitive-behavioral couple therapy, emotion-focused couple therapy, and strategic approaches to couple therapy. It concludes by outlining directions for future research to better understand the link between intimate relationship functioning and psychopathology.
Kieran T. Sullivan and Erika Lawrence
Long-term committed intimate relationships such as marriage are an integral part of our lives and confer many benefits but many couples experience significant relationship distress and about half of all marriages end in divorce. The purpose of this edited volume is to showcase cutting-edge research on couple functioning and interventions, including the development of new guidelines for determining whether a given couple therapy is empirically supported, the relation between couple functioning and individual physical and psychological functioning (e.g., chronic pain, depression, anxiety), the role of genetics in interpersonal processes, best practices for the assessment, prevention, and treatment of couple dysfunction, and the relevance of couple functioning and couple therapy to the structure and utility of classification systems such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).
Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
This chapter provides an introduction to the Oxford Handbook of Emerging Adulthood. It begins with an overview of the aims and scope of the handbook. Then it summarizes briefly the content of the chapters to come. The handbook is comprised of 35 chapters organized into 10 parts, with each part containing from two to six chapters. The chapters cover a broad range of areas, from structural factors (such as social class) to relationships (from family to friends) to risk and resilience. The final section of this introductory chapter presents suggestions for the future of the field. The explosive expansion of the field over the past 15 years is noted, and suggestions are made for the field to focus more on EAs who do not attend college, devote more research to international variations in EA, and examine the transition from EA to the next life stage.
Steven W. Duck and Daniel Usera
This chapter discusses how language is used to constitute relationships, particularly through the things we say and the things we show by saying them. Additionally, the chapter surveys the research in communication studies on six practices of everyday talk that arise in various kinds of relationships: self-disclosure, metaphors, narrative, taken-for-granted (TFGs), personal idioms, and intimate play. Four future directions of research are then suggested.
Relatively little research has examined the grandparent–adult grandchild relationship, although these relationships might play a more significant role than in the past, possibly impacting grandchildren’s development and the adjustment of both parties. This chapter reviews different theoretical perspectives related to this bond and presents the special flavor of this bond during emerging adulthood resulting from the different developmental trajectories of grandparents and grandchildren that mutually influence one another. Empirical findings demonstrating large variation both within and between families regarding frequency of contact and quality of the relations are presented, as well as various contextual and demographic variables that might mediate and moderate these variations. Finally, the importance of studying this bond, future research directions, and possible implications are discussed.
Leyla M. Pérez-Gualdrón and Christine J. Yeh
Every counseling encounter is intrinsically influenced by dynamics associated with race and diversity. To better serve multicultural individuals, counselors must be cognizant of the social inequities, power differences, and dynamics that impact racial and ethnic groups and their multicultural identities. With a focus on counseling for social justice, thechapter explores multiculturalism in the counseling profession, multicultural counseling competencies, multicultural counseling skills and practices, and multicultural counseling in educational and community settings. Multicultural counseling competencies and skills are highlighted, with special emphasis placed in the counselor’s self-awareness, worldview, and racial identity. Counseling practice using ecological assessments and advocacy is also emphasized. Specific multicultural counseling skills are presented through the culturally based Skills Identification Stage model. Additionally, indigenous and interdependent approaches for multicultural counseling are offered. Samples of multicultural counseling educational and community interventions are also presented. Future directions for practice, training, and research are discussed.