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Ancient Near Eastern Millennialism  

Robert Gnuse

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Jan 2012
Although there existed no real millennial text prior to late Jewish and early Christian texts, there exists an overabundance of resources that heavily draw on millennial texts. This ... More

Apocalyptic Religion and Violence  

Jamel Velji

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2013
This chapter offers a working definition of the apocalyptic, followed by some of the apocalyptic's most important constituent components. Then, it concentrates on associations between ... More

Armageddon in Christian, Sunni, and Shia Traditions  

Michael A. Sells

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2013
This chapter, which looks at the actual or alleged cases of apocalypticism within contemporary Iranian Shi'ite, Saudi Sunni, and American Christian circles, evaluates the issue of ... More

Avertive Apocalypticism  

Daniel Wojcik

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Jan 2012
The concept of avertive apocalypticism describes a wide range of beliefs that predict imminent worldly destruction and maintains that apocalypse may be averted or forestalled if believers ... More

Catastrophic Millennialism  

Eugene V. Gallagher

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Jan 2012
Catastrophic millennialism emanates from a deep pessimism towards society, history, and general humanity. This article develops an analysis of the basic descriptive vocabulary of ... More

Conflicts over Sacred Ground  

Ron E. Hassner

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2013
This chapter argues that contested sacred sites pose indivisibility challenges which can drive even natural religious allies into violent conflict, and also outlines the multiple roots of ... More

Cosmic War in Religious Traditions  

Reza Aslan

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2013
This chapter provides a discussion on cosmic war in religious traditions, focusing on the development and evolution of cosmic war in the Hebrew Bible. Cosmic war can allow belief in the ... More

Divergent Modes of Religiosity and Armed Struggle  

Harvey Whitehouse and Brian McQuinn

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2013
This chapter investigates one of the most powerful mechanisms by which groups may be formed, inspired, and coordinated—ritual—which may be defined as normative behavior with an ... More

European Millennialism  

Rebecca Moore

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Jan 2012
This article discusses three recurring themes that can be identified from the midst of global millennialism, namely Sacred time—the categorization of history into religiously relevant holy ... More

Gender Roles, Sexuality, and Children in Millennial Movements  

Melissa M. Wilcox

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Jan 2012
This article deals with the issues of gender and sexuality in millennial movements. Patriarchy pervades across the spectrum, varieties range from reversal of normative gender based ... More

Japanese Millennial Movements  

Helen Hardacre

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Jan 2012
This article introduces the Japanese millennial movements, which came into contact with its western counterparts in the nineteenth century. While periodization has been intrinsic to ... More

Mimetic Theories of Religion and Violence  

Wolfgang Palaver

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2013
This chapter concentrates on the mimetic theory of Rene Girard in evaluating foundational myths of violence. It shows Girard's notion of the scapegoating mechanism, whereby a substitute ... More

Nativist Millennialism  

Jean E. Rosenfeld

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Jan 2012
This article examines five nativistic millennial movements that are culturally, geographically, and temporally dissimilar to find the similarities that bind them into a single category: ... More

Religion and Political Violence  

Monica Duffy Toft

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2013
This chapter, which describes why religion is resurging in the political sphere and the conditions under which religion is most likely to cause troubling violence, also places the source ... More

Religion and Scarcity: A New Theory for the Role of Religion in Violence  

Hector Avalos

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2013
This chapter demonstrates the viability of a new theory for the role of religion in violence by applying it to cases ranging from the ancient to the modern world, and in the three ... More

Religion and Violence from a Political Science Perspective  

Daniel Philpott

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2013
This chapter presents an account for religious violence, and also evaluates institutional independence and political theology more carefully. Then, it uses these two factors to elaborate ... More

Religion and Violence from a Psychological Perspective  

James W. Jones

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2013
This chapter summarizes some of the methods and findings in religion and violence from a psychological perspective, reviewing Stanley Milgram's obedience to authority and Philip Zimbardo's ... More

Religion and Violence from a Sociological Perspective  

John R. Hall

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2013
This chapter investigates the circumstances of violence in a way that identifies alternative “domains” in which religious concatenations of violence arise. Despite the fluidity of ... More

The Religious Problem of Evil  

James Aho

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2013
This chapter provides some of the answers as to how evil is experienced and why it exists. Evil explodes into the everyday world unasked and unwelcome, and has little underlying meaning ... More

Religious Terrorism as Performance Violence  

Mark Juergensmeyer

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2013
This chapter describes religious terrorism as “performance violence,” illustrating that performance violence is planned in order to obtain tangible goals, and also to theatrically enact ... More

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