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American Jewish History  

Hasia Diner

Print publication date:
Dec 2004
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
American Jewish history as a field of scholarly inquiry takes as its subject-matter the experience of Jews in the United States and places it within the context of both modern Jewish ... More

Catholic Laity in the Latin American Church  

Robert S. Pelton C.S.C.

Print publication date:
Mar 2020
Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Before Vatican II, pastoral theology reflected a clear distinction between the ordained and non-ordained members of the Church, but a gradual nuancing of this issue was taking place in ... More

Eastern European Jewry in the Modern Period: 1750–1939  

Michael Stanislawski

Print publication date:
Dec 2004
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article notes that the study of the modern history of East European Jews is not a field driven at present by deep conceptual or ideological divides or abiding scholarly or ... More

European Jewry in the Early Modern Period: 1492–1750  

Elisheva Carlebach

Print publication date:
Dec 2004
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article describes conceptions of the early modern period in Jewish historiography, the Italian Renaissance, intellectual history, the Jews of Central Europe in the early modern period, ... More

Historiography on the Jews in the ‘Talmudic Period’ (70–640 ce)  

Seth Schwartz

Print publication date:
Dec 2004
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article presents a narrative history of the Jews between the destruction of the Second Temple (70 ce) and the Arab conquest of Palestine (c.640 ce). After the destruction, Palestine ... More

Humanism and Its Critics  

Slavica Jakelić

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
The most significant contemporary challenges to humanism do not come from critics who relegate it to anti-religiousness or exclusively immanent concerns, but from those who critique ... More

Humanism and Technology  

Cor van der Weele and Henk van den Belt

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
The chapter argues that in human relations with technology, assumptions about ourselves are just as crucial as assumptions about technology. Neither the optimistic traditional humanist ... More

Humanism as a Religious Orientation?  

William Hart

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
Atheism, humanism, and naturalism are three expressions of nontheism. They are “ideal types,” abstractions from the empirical messiness of the phenomena they describe. These types represent ... More

Humanism in Europe  

Stefan Schröder

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
This chapter addresses secular humanism in Europe and the way it is “lived” by and within its major institutions and organizations. It examines how national and international secular ... More

Jews and Judaism in the Second Temple Period  

Martin Goodman

Print publication date:
Dec 2004
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
For all Jews in this period, in both diaspora and homeland, the Jerusalem Temple was the central religious institution. The wide dispersal of Jews prevented many from regular participation ... More

Marriage and Sexual Relations in the New Testament World  

William Loader

Print publication date:
Nov 2014
Online publication date:
Mar 2014
After a brief overview of the social context and role of marriage and sexuality in Jewish and Greco-Roman cultures, the chapter traces the impact of the Genesis creation narratives, ... More

Marriage and Sexual Relations in the World of the Hebrew Bible  

Ken Stone

Print publication date:
Nov 2014
Online publication date:
May 2014
The Hebrew Bible is sometimes understood as the source of a ‘traditional’ Judaeo-Christian approach to marriage and sexual practice. A comprehensive examination reveals, however, that ... More

Medieval Karaism  

Meira Polliack

Print publication date:
Dec 2004
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Karaism is best defined as a Jewish religious movement of a scripturalist and messianic nature, which crystallized in the second half of the ninth century in the areas of Persia-Iraq and ... More

Natural Theology in the Middle Ages  

Alexander W. Hall

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Jun 2013
The development of natural theology in the Middle Ages was driven by the rebirth experienced by Western Europe beginning in the 1000s owing to the emergence of stable monarchies and reconquest of the ... More

Religion and Animals  

Aaron S. Gross

What do animals have to do with religion? This article answers this broad question with special attention to issues related to animal ethics and animal philosophy. Topics covered include ... More

Same-Sex Relations in the Biblical World  

Theodore W. Jennings Jr.

Print publication date:
Nov 2014
Online publication date:
Mar 2014
While the Bible is often understood to forbid same-sex love, a closer examination reveals a wide variety of forms of same-sex love that are presupposed and even celebrated in these texts. ... More

Sephardi and Middle Eastern Jewries since 1492  

Sarah Abrevaya Stein

Print publication date:
Dec 2004
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Despite significant achievements, certain challenges still confront the student of Sephardi and Middle Eastern Jewries. This article delineates four such challenges. First, the conceptual ... More

Sex and Marriage in the Protestant Tradition, 1500–1900  

John Witte Jr.

Print publication date:
Nov 2014
Online publication date:
Apr 2014
The chapter analyses the mainline Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican models of sex, marriage, and family and their gradual liberalization by Enlightenment liberalism. The theological ... More

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