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The areal dimension of grammaticalization  

Bernd Heine and Tania Kuteva

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article describes the areal dimension of grammaticalisation resulting from language contact. It shows that grammaticalisation is a ubiquitous process in language contact which may ... More

Assessing the role of contact in the history of English  

Raymond Hickey

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Language contact has long been the subject of extensive research in linguistics, but has recently been the object of increased attention by scholars working on both the history of English ... More

Bidirectional Borrowing of Structure and Lexicon: The Case of the Reef Islands  

Åshild Næss

Print publication date:
Mar 2020
Online publication date:
Feb 2020
This chapter discusses how particular patterns of bilingualism, speaker agency, and L1-L2 interaction can lead to the seemingly contradictory outcome of lexical items and grammatical ... More

The Bilingual Lexicon  

Judith F. Kroll and Ton Dijkstra

Print publication date:
Sep 2010
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
How do bilinguals recognize and speak words in each of their two languages? Past research on the bilingual lexicon focused on the questions of whether bilinguals represent words in each ... More

Bilingualism and Child Phonology  

Conxita Lleó

The present article poses some fundamental questions related to bilingualism and to the acquisition of two phonological components, by very young children. It discusses different types of ... More

Borrowing  

Maarten Kossmann

Print publication date:
Sep 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This article discusses borrowing—mainly lexical borrowing—in relation to Arabic. It first provides a brief introduction to early loans in Arabic. Then it considers borrowing in written ... More

Case and Contact Linguistics  

Lars Johanson

Print publication date:
Nov 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Language contact affects case categories in various ways. This article examines the effects of contacts between linguistic codes (languages, unrelated or related, or language varieties): ... More

Code-Switching as a Reflection of Contact-Induced Change  

Ad Backus

Print publication date:
Mar 2020
Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Code-switching is often studied in purely synchronic terms, as recorded speech is analyzed for patterns of language mixing. Though this has yielded numerous useful theoretical advances, it ... More

Codeswitching and Related Issues Involving Arabic  

Abdelali Bentahila, Eirlys Davies, and Jonathan Owens

Print publication date:
Sep 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
Bilingual speech involving Arabic has been an important source of linguistic research on the language. The greater part of this research has involved Arabic in contact with other languages; ... More

Contact and the Development of Malayalam  

P. Sreekumar

Print publication date:
Mar 2020
Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Malayalam is an ideal representative of language contact and convergence in South Asia. This chapter discusses Malayalam’s contact with a dozen languages around the world. The first part of ... More

Contact in the African area: A Southern African perspective  

Ana Deumert and Rajend Mesthrie

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article explores language contact in the African area, with particular focus on Southern Africa. It first looks at the formal features of English in Africa that show the complexities ... More

Contact in the Asian arena  

Lisa Lim and Umberto Ansaldo

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
A consideration of the Asian region in the history of English must view the element of contact in multilingual contexts as probably the most significant phenomenon affecting the development ... More

Contact Influences on Ossetic  

Oleg Belyaev

Print publication date:
Mar 2020
Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Ossetic is an Iranian language spoken by around half a million people (Census 2002) mostly in the North Caucasus, in the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, part of Russia, and in the ... More

Contact-Induced Change and Phonology  

Thomas B. Klein, E-Ching Ng, and Anthony P. Grant

Print publication date:
Mar 2020
Online publication date:
Feb 2020
This chapter discusses aspects of CILC involving phonetics and phonology, exemplifying the wide range of possible phenomena, involving cases of transfer of fabric, transfer of pattern and ... More

Contact-induced change in English worldwide  

Edgar W. Schneider

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Over the past few hundred years, and for the last few decades in particular, English has come into contact with a wide range of different languages across the globe due to colonial ... More

Contact-Induced Language Change in Spanish  

Miriam Bouzouita

Print publication date:
Mar 2020
Online publication date:
Feb 2020
This chapter offers an overview of the languages with which Spanish has entered into contact in the course of its history. As is to be expected, most contact-induced changes in standard ... More

Creole Languages  

Donald Winford

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Bickerton (1974, 1981, 1984) claimed that the “prototypical” creole tense-mood-aspect system was made up of two components: an inventory of three categories (anterior tense, irrealis mood, ... More

The Creole Origins Hypothesis  

John R. Rickford

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Aug 2015
The creolist hypothesis goes back at least to 1964 when Bill Stewart and Beryl Bailey expressed the view that African American Vernacular English (AAVE) descended from a widespread full ... More

Creoles  

John McWhorter

Print publication date:
Mar 2020
Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Creole languages are new languages, each of them with communities of L1 speakers, that have developed from adults’ second-language renditions of, usually, European languages amidst ... More

Differential Case Marking of Arguments in Amharic  

Mengistu Amberber

Print publication date:
Nov 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article examines the case and agreement systems of Amharic with particular reference to the phenomena of differential subject marking (DSM) and differential object marking (DOM). It ... More

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