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Aquinas and Jewish and Islamic Authors  

David B. Burrell

Print publication date:
Jan 2012
Online publication date:
May 2012
The works of Plato and of Aristotle were made available to the Islamic people by virtue of Syriac translators from Greek into Arabic. Aristotle's Metaphysic offered the paradigm for ... More

Arguments for the Existence of God  

Graham Oppy

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article considers the following medieval philosophers—Philoponus, Anselm, Maimonides, Aquinas, and Scotus—all supposedly to have produced arguments that deserve the label “medieval ... More

Arguments for the Existence of God  

Brandon C. Look

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Mar 2014
This chapter critically discusses Leibniz’s arguments for the existence of God. It explores Leibniz’s improvements on the traditional ontological arguments of Anselm and Descartes, as well ... More

Augustine to Aquinas (Latin-Christian Authors)  

Alexander Fidora

Print publication date:
Jan 2012
Online publication date:
May 2012
Thomas Aquinas integrated the newly translated philosophical source that is Greek, Arabic, and Jewish authors into a unique synthesis with his own Christian tradition efficiently. The most ... More

Authorization and Representation in Hobbes’s Leviathan  

Al P. Martinich

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Jul 2015
In Leviathan, Hobbes holds that prospective subjects authorize a sovereign to represent them. Alienation of some rights to the sovereign typically follows upon authorization of him, and ... More

Christianity and Civil Religion in Hobbes’s Leviathan  

Sarah Mortimer

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
Hobbes was an unusual Christian, and one that recognized the potential power of the Christian story to strengthen (as well as to undermine) commonwealths. This chapter discusses the account ... More

Conceptions of God  

Steven Nadler

Print publication date:
Jan 2011
Online publication date:
May 2011
This article examines the three ways in which God was conceptualized by leading philosophers in early modern Europe. Gottfried Leibniz and Nicholas Malebranche's rationalist God was ... More

Ecclesiology, Ecumenism, and Toleration  

Maria Rosa Antognazza

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Mar 2017
This chapter discusses Leibniz’s conception of the Christian church, his life-long ecumenical efforts, and his stance toward religious toleration. Leibniz regarded the main Christian ... More

The Five Ways  

Timothy Pawl

Print publication date:
Jan 2012
Online publication date:
May 2012
Aquinas offered ‘Five Ways’ that are the five proofs or demonstrations near the beginning of his Summa theologiae to establish the existence of God. Some scholars think that Aquinas's Five ... More

The Franciscans  

Thomas Williams

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
This chapter analyses the Franciscans's views in ethics and moral psychology, beginning with an overview of the general characteristics of Franciscan moral thought in the late thirteenth ... More

The Gifts and Fruits of the Holy Spirit  

Andrew Pinsent

Print publication date:
Jan 2012
Online publication date:
May 2012
Aquinas and Aristotle have different views on the types of virtues. Aquinas claimed that proper or perfect virtues are not acquired, but infused in human beings by God. These infused ... More

God's Goodness  

Ludger Honnefelder

Print publication date:
Jan 2012
Online publication date:
May 2012
Aquinas dealt with the science whose subject is God in his Summa theologiae. He focused on the determining of the predicates such as existence/being, simplicity, perfection, and goodness, ... More

God's Impassibility, Immutability, and Eternality  

Brian Leftow

Print publication date:
Jan 2012
Online publication date:
May 2012
The article discusses Aquinas's views on God's impassibility, immutability, and eternality. Aquinas argued that God has no passions and God's perfection rules out his negative emotions, ... More

God's Knowledge and Will  

James Brent O.P.

Print publication date:
Jan 2012
Online publication date:
May 2012
Aquinas presented God's knowledge as a divine perfection and as divine ideas. He also considered God's knowledge of future contingent events such as creaturely free choices. Aquinas ... More

God's Omnipotence  

Brian Leftow

Print publication date:
Jan 2012
Online publication date:
May 2012
Aquinas argued that God's power is infinite because God needs no help from anything else to produce his effects, the number of his effects is unlimited, and its intensity is unlimited. ... More

God's Simplicity  

Eleonore Stump

Print publication date:
Jan 2012
Online publication date:
May 2012
Aquinas explained the doctrine of divine simplicity with three claims. The first distinguished God from material objects. It is impossible that God have any spatial or temporal parts that ... More

Hobbes and Religion Without Theology  

Agostino Lupoli

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Historical religion depends on “errour of reasoning” concerning invisible spirits and “trusting to other men.” Hobbes replaces the erroneous inference with argument for the existence of the ... More

Hume and Proofs for the Existence of God  

Martin Bell

Print publication date:
Jan 2016
Online publication date:
Aug 2014
This chapter is about Hume’s critiques of the cosmological, ontological, and design arguments for the existence of God, as proposed by Samuel Clarke and other Newtonian theologians. Clarke ... More

Hume’s Natural History of Religion  

Keith E. Yandell

Print publication date:
Jan 2016
Online publication date:
Aug 2014
Hume’s Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, Dialogues 1–11 discuss religion’s foundation in human reason. Dialogue 12, in which Philo. the relentless opponent of pro-theistic arguments, ... More

Hume’s Philosophy of Irreligion and the Myth of British Empiricism  

Paul Russell

Print publication date:
Jan 2016
Online publication date:
Jul 2015
This chapter outlines an alternative interpretation of Hume’s philosophy, one that aims, among other things, to explain some of the most perplexing puzzles concerning the relationship ... More

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