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Aristocratic Economies: Women and Family  

Joanna Drell

Print publication date:
Aug 2013
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
This essay examines the economic activities and "work" of aristocratic women, c.1000–c.1400. Despite the limitations posed by law, custom, and social expectation, women played a central ... More

The Bride of Christ, the “Male Woman,” and the Female Reader in Late Antiquity  

Kate Cooper

Print publication date:
Aug 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
Christian literature in late antiquity offered contrasting models of female sanctity, emphasizing alternately the gender ambiguity of the young woman dressed as a man, and the nuptial ... More

Brideprice, Dowry, and other Marital Assigns  

Susan Mosher Stuard

Print publication date:
Aug 2013
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
Between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries, morgengabe, a husband's gift to his wife marking the formal consummation of marriage, was replaced in Italian, southern French, and Spanish ... More

The Byzantine Body  

Kathryn Ringrose

Print publication date:
Aug 2013
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
The Byzantines perceived the body as malleable, able to be changed to suit the needs of society. They also believed that the appearance of the outer body reflected the quality of the inner ... More

Caring for Gendered Bodies  

Monica Green

Print publication date:
Aug 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
Given the comparatively slow pace of human evolution, the body, as a biological entity, may be taken more or less as a historical constant during the past 1500 years. But every interaction ... More

Carolingian Domesticities  

Rachel Stone

Print publication date:
Aug 2013
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
Carolingian ideas of "home" and "family" encompassed a wide range of meanings from physical buildings to kin and free and unfree dependents. Kinship ties played a vital role, both socially ... More

Changing Modes of Warfare and the Gendering of Military Medical Care, 1850s–1920s  

Jean H. Quataert

Print publication date:
Nov 2020
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
The chapter centers on the gendering of battlefield services found at the nexus of war, law, and medicine from the 1850s to the 1920s. It offers a sociolegal analysis of the impact of ... More

Citizenship and Gender on the American and Canadian Home Fronts during the First and Second World Wars  

Kimberly Jensen

Print publication date:
Nov 2020
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
This chapter analyzes the impact and consequences of the First and Second World Wars for the home fronts of Canada and the United States, with a particular focus on the definitions of and ... More

Citizenship, Mass Mobilization, and Masculinity in a Transatlantic Perspective, 1770s–1870s  

Stefan Dudink

Print publication date:
Nov 2020
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
The chapter explores the interrelationship between the emergence of new ways of mass mobilization with volunteers, militias, and universal conscription; the rise of notions of gender as a ... More

Colonial Soldiers, Race, and Military Masculinities during and beyond World Wars I and II  

Richard Smith

Print publication date:
Nov 2020
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
Millions of colonial soldiers served the empires during World Wars I and II. Until the end of the twentieth century their history and memory received little attention. This chapter shows ... More

Communism and Women  

Donna Harsch

Print publication date:
Jan 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This article discusses women and gender relations under communism, beginning in the Soviet Union in the 1920s, continuing through the Cold War era in Eastern Europe, and including Cuba and ... More

Conceptualizing Sexual Violence in Post–Cold War Global Conflicts  

Dubravka Zarkov

Print publication date:
Nov 2020
Online publication date:
Nov 2020
Recent scholarship conceptualizes sexual violence as an inherent part of war violence, but emphasizes its varying pattern across conflicts, armed groups, and small units. However, some ... More

Conflicts Over Gender in Civic Courts  

Carol Lansing

Print publication date:
Aug 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
Civic court records are a rare source for medieval social experience and attitudes, including low-status people who do not appear in most records. Because the requirements for proof in ... More

Cults of Saints  

Miri Rubin

Print publication date:
Aug 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2013
The cult of saints in the Middle Ages is considered here through the operation of gender. Gender is shown to be have determined who was considered a saint, how holiness was pursued by ... More

Cultures of Devotion  

Kathleen Ashley

Print publication date:
Aug 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
Cultures of devotion in multiple forms were central to medieval lives, and because of their significance they became sites for defining and negotiating gender identities and issues. The ... More

Devoted Holiness in the Lay World  

Anneke Mulder-Bakker

Print publication date:
Aug 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2013
The growing cities of late medieval northern Europe offered religiously gifted laypeople contexts in which to devote themselves fully to religion without having to leave the world or to ... More

Domesticity and Beyond: Gender, Family, and Consumption in Modern Europe  

Enrica Asquer

Print publication date:
Mar 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article discusses the relationship between gender history and the history of the family, especially in the field of consumer studies, and examines works that consider the rise of a ... More

Emancipation and Exploitation in Immigrant Women’s Lives  

Donna R. Gabaccia

Print publication date:
Aug 2016
Online publication date:
Oct 2013
Because the United States celebrates itself as a beacon of liberty, emancipation is one of the most common themes in the history of immigrant women and the exploitation of women, as workers ... More

European Sexualities in the Age of Total War  

Dagmar Herzog

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
This chapter explores transformations in European sexual mores and practices in the era of the two world wars. It pays particular attention to the contradictory dynamics of the interwar ... More

Fertility Control: Eugenics, Neo-Malthusianism, and Feminism  

Susanne Klausen and Alison Bashford

Print publication date:
Sep 2010
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article analyzes the preoccupation of eugenics with fertility control—a broad term denoting all methods by which humans seek to induce, prevent, or terminate pregnancy. It also ... More

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