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Allegiance, Dual Citizenship, and the Ethnic Influence on U.S. Foreign Policy  

David Brundage

Print publication date:
Aug 2016
Online publication date:
Jan 2014
Following a discussion of what some scholars have seen as “divided loyalties” among immigrants, this article surveys the history of the ethnic influence on U.S. foreign policy from the ... More

Britain and Europe  

Geoff Hicks

Print publication date:
Apr 2018
Online publication date:
May 2018
This chapter presents a broad overview of the place of Europe and European questions in British political history. It establishes a sense of the historiographical context, considering in ... More

Civil Rights Policy  

Mark Rush

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
This article discusses the evolution of U.S. civil rights and civil liberties through the lens of Supreme Court decisions. It traces the evolution of negative rights against the state and ... More

The Civil Service  

Hugh Pemberton

Print publication date:
Apr 2018
Online publication date:
May 2018
Despite current concerns with good governance and policy delivery, little serious attention has been paid to the institution vital to both: the Civil Service. This chapter places present ... More

Colonial Politics  

Stephen Conway

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
This essay begins by examining the establishment of English political systems in the North American colonies in the seventeenth century. It then goes on to look at eighteenth-century ... More

Communications and Technology Policy  

Heidi Tworek

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
Federal involvement in communications came early with the development of a national postal system. Yet that involvement was intertwined with and influenced by international developments ... More

Defense and Foreign Policy  

Timothy J. Lynch

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
The history of American foreign and defense policy is framed by an enduring debate over the appropriate role of federal power in national politics. From the very beginning, parties formed ... More

Democracy  

James Thompson

Print publication date:
Apr 2018
Online publication date:
May 2018
This chapter seeks to bring out the interrelated quality of twentieth century discussions of democracy, drawing especially on debates in the 1930s and 1970s. It locates these within the ... More

The Democratic Moment: The Revolution and Popular Politics  

Ray Raphael

Print publication date:
Dec 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
Direct democracy was practiced within town meetings in colonial New England, driven by four overarching principles. First, citizens had a political voice as members of a specific geographic ... More

Democrats and Whigs: The Second American Party System  

Harry L. Watson

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
The rivalry between the Whig and Democratic Parties, often called the “Second American Party System,” first emerged in Andrew Jackson’s administration (1829–1837). Democrats organized to ... More

Devolution  

James Mitchell

Print publication date:
Apr 2018
Online publication date:
May 2018
This chapter attempts to draw out comparisons and make sense of devolution as a UK-wide phenomenon. Devolution has taken a variety of forms at different times in different parts of the UK. ... More

The Early Republic, 1789–1815  

John L. Brooke

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
The twenty-five-year political history of the early American republic, covering the period from the first federal election through the War of 1812, critically shaped the terms and path of ... More

The Economy  

Jim Tomlinson

Print publication date:
Apr 2018
Online publication date:
May 2018
This chapter falls into two unequal parts. The first charts, broadly chronologically, the shifting understandings, historical and historiographical, of the role of the state in economic ... More

Elections  

Luke Blaxill

Print publication date:
Apr 2018
Online publication date:
May 2018
This chapter evaluates the two principal methodologies adopted in studying elections over the past 200 years. The first prominently features ‘psephological’ analyses of aggregate voting ... More

The Emergence of Diplomacy  

Paul Dover and Hamish Scott

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Mar 2015
This chapter charts the emergence of diplomacy in its modern sense—the peaceful and continuous management of relations between states—during the early modern centuries. It was brought about ... More

The Empire That Britain Kept  

Eliga H. Gould

Print publication date:
Dec 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
William Augustus Bowles was a loyalist soldier during the American Revolution who also acted as an agent for the British governor of the Bahamas. Had events gone his way, he could have ... More

Environmental and Energy Policy  

Brian Black

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
This chapter explores the interrelated nature of the environmental and energy policies in the United States, particularly since 1900. As new technologies made new sources of energy viable, ... More

Ethnic Politics in American History  

James J. Connolly

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
This chapter traces the ways that ethnic politics evolved in the United States. During the mid-nineteenth century, amid heavy immigration from Europe, ascendant mass parties mobilized ... More

Federal Education Policy  

Wayne J. Urban

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
This article discusses federal educational policy and provisions, briefly in the nineteenth century and more fully in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. It details federal ... More

Gender and Political Citizenship  

Eileen McDonagh and Danielle M. Thomsen

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
The trajectory of women’s citizenship over the past two centuries reflects the changing political and cultural landscape at various moments in American history as well as a more constant ... More

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