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1968  

Maud Anne Bracke

Published in print:
Jan 2014
Published Online:
Dec 2013
Around 1968 communism expanded as a global movement, especially in the developing world, while hitting a crisis of legitimation in Europe. In the Western world the late 1960s saw young ... More

1989  

Matthias Middell

Published in print:
Jan 2014
Published Online:
Dec 2013
The essay argues that the story of 1989 can be told either as a narrow or a wide story. The narrow story focuses on the end of communism, the unification of Germany, and the subsequent ... More

Africa  

Elizabeth Schmidt

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter examines the impact of the Cold War on Africa. It explains that while Africa is the least-known Cold War battleground, the United States, the Soviet Union, China, and Cuba ... More

After the Fear was Over? What Came After Dictatorships in Spain, Greece, and Portugal  

Helen Graham and Alejandro Quiroga

Published in print:
May 2012
Published Online:
Sep 2012
What Spain, Greece, and Portugal have in common in the twentieth century is the manner in which their internal processes of change – rural to urban, agrarian to industrial – were ... More

The Aftermath of War  

Glenda Sluga

Published in print:
Oct 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
Fascism was conceived amid the disorder associated with the transition from war to peace. The war shaped a predilection for the resort to violence, and disrespect for the practices of ... More

Annus Mirabilis: 1989 and German Unification  

David F. Patton

Published in print:
Sep 2011
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article focuses on the wonder years enjoyed by Germany in 1989 that followed the great German unification. In 1989–1990, the two Germanies underwent a series of remarkable changes ... More

Brothers, Strangers and Enemies: Ethno-Nationalism and the Demise of Communist Yugoslavia  

Cathie Carmichael

Published in print:
May 2012
Published Online:
Sep 2012
In the forty-five years after World War II that Communist Yugoslavia existed, judgements as to the success of the experiment differed widely. Unlike the first royalist Yugoslav state, ... More

Capital, Labor, and State: Rethinking the Political Economy of Oil in the Gulf  

Adam Hanieh

Published Online:
Aug 2015
The Middle East’s pivotal position in a hydrocarbon-based global capitalism carries enormous ramifications for the region and the Gulf Arab states in particular. This chapter aims to ... More

Case Study: Field Notes on Catastrophe: Reflections on the September 11, 2001, Oral History Memory and Narrative Project  

Mary Marshall Clark

Published in print:
Nov 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article focuses on the catastrophe of September 11, 2001; its memory sustained through oral history and captured in narratives. The purpose of this article is twofold: to explore the ... More

Case Study: Rome's House of Memory and History: The Politics of Memory and Public Institutions  

Alessandro Portelli

Published in print:
Nov 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article centers around the case study of Rome's House of Memory and History to understand the politics of memory and public institutions. This case study is about the organization and ... More

The Cold War in Southeast Asia  

Ang Cheng Guan

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter examines the history of the Cold War in Southeast Asia. It explains that the onset of the Cold War coincided with nationalist struggles and decolonization, and explains why ... More

Cold War Strategies/Power and Culture—East: Sources of Soviet Conduct Reconsidered  

Vladislav Zubok

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter examines the root motives behind the Soviet struggle against the West and the paradigm of Soviet international behavior related to the Cold War. It suggests that ... More

Colonial Fantasies Shattered  

Martin Evans

Published in print:
May 2012
Published Online:
Sep 2012
J. G. Ballard, author of the 1984 novel Empire of the Sun, was born in the Shanghai International Settlement in China in 1930, into a privileged colonial milieu with a chauffeur, a nanny, ... More

The Comintern  

Alexander Vatlin and Stephen A. Smith

Published in print:
Jan 2014
Published Online:
Dec 2013
The essay falls into two sections. The first examines the history of the Third International (Comintern) from its creation in 1919 to its dissolution in 1943, looking at the imposition of ... More

Communism in the Islamic World  

Anne Alexander

Published in print:
Jan 2014
Published Online:
Dec 2013
This essay explores some of the common patterns in the history of communism in Muslim-majority societies. The most important of these had little to with Islam. Rather, they reflected the ... More

Communist Revolution and Political Terror  

Julia Strauss

Published in print:
Jan 2014
Published Online:
Dec 2013
The convergence of terror and revolution has been noted from the time of the French and Russian revolutions. This article lays out the ways in which the concept of extreme political ... More

Contemporary History of Medicine and Health  

Virginia Berridge

Published in print:
Aug 2011
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article argues that the contemporary history of health and medicine presents some particular challenges, however, for the nature of historians' involvement in the object of their ... More

A Continent Bristling With Arms: Continuity and Change In Western European Security Policies After the Second World War  

Leopoldo Nuti

Published in print:
May 2012
Published Online:
Sep 2012
Since the end of World War II, Europe has known an unprecedented period of peace that has profoundly altered the political landscape of the continent. Yet at the same time, for much of the ... More

Corporatism and the Social Democratic Moment: The Postwar Settlement, 1945–1973  

Geoff Eley

Published in print:
May 2012
Published Online:
Sep 2012
Certain facts about postwar Europe seem self-evidently true. Undoubtedly the most salient was the division of Europe and the political, economic, social, and cultural antinomies that ... More

Counterterrorism and Counterinsurgency in the Neoliberal Age  

Laleh Khalili

Published Online:
Sep 2015
This chapter examines the colonial roots of counterinsurgency practices deployed by the US after September 11, 2001 in Iraq and Afghanistan. Drawing on a broad range of primary sources ... More

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