This chapter describes the development of reparations in international humanitarian and international criminal law. It then highlights the tension between judicial reparations and the harms that victims experience in conflict, particularly gendered harms such as sexual violence and discrimination against women. It demonstrates the importance of incorporating gender analyses into reparations programs and practice to fully redress victims’ needs and rights. It argues that reparations programs should acknowledge the challenges that victims of sexual and gender-based violence face, which may impact their participation in reparation proceedings. It also argues that reparations programs should focus on rectifying structural injustice to ensure gender atrocities are not repeated.
This chapter examines the agenda-setting capacity of global policy networks. It argues that the capacity of global networks to promote new ideas and understanding about issues at the global scale depends on their ability to produce information and indicators, to quantify the magnitude of issues and the consequences of inaction, and to take advantage of the opportunities generated by political transformations and preference shifts. Yet, it recognizes that once global networks are formally institutionalized, they become important gatekeepers, preventing the entry of certain issues and ideas onto the political agenda, by adopting above all a strategy of non-decision. The chapter also highlights some of the theoretical and methodological shortcomings of this line of research, especially those regarding legitimacy and political representation.
This chapter comments on Carol Weiss’s 1972 book Evaluation Research: Methods for Assessing Program Effectiveness, an in-depth analysis of many of the crucial and complex issues that plague evaluators and public managers. Weiss explains how the political context in which social programs work and evaluations are implemented could help program managers and evaluators improve service delivery. After summarizing Weiss’s professional and intellectual profile, this chapter considers the influence of her seminal text and the four major threads of her intellectual legacy. More specifically, it examines how evaluation research can help improve public policy-making and how program evaluation studies can be utilized. It also describes theory-based evaluation and why it matters, as well as the implications of the political nature of public programs. Finally, the chapter identifies the challenges involved in using findings for the design of evaluation studies.
This chapter focuses on ‘A Public Management for all Seasons?” Authored in 1991 by Christopher Hood, the seminal chapter introduced the term “New Public Management” (NPM) for the first time to describe the reforms that had been around in the public sector in many countries, particularly English-speaking countries, since the early 1980s. The chapter summarizes the main assumptions of Hood’s paper, focusing on NPM’s seven different doctrinal components: hands-on professional management, explicit standards and measures of performance, greater emphasis on output control, disaggregation of units, greater competition, private sector styles of management, and discipline and parsimony in resource utilization. It also considers the set of doctrines proposed by Hood that combine managerialism with economic rationalism. Finally, it assesses the NPM-based administrative reforms based on the premise that effective vertical managerial accountability would translate to better performance.
Heidi Jane M. Smith
Mayors, local legislators, governors and other subnational elected officials have traditionally engaged in paradiplomatic international activities for their own trade promotion and economic development through city-to-city exchanges, business study groups, and youth exchanges. With urbanization and the decentralization of political and administrative structures along with a deepening liberal order, there is a new uprising of city actors pursuing paradiplomacy. Defined as local activities that have a global public policy impact, they include, for example, subnational actors’ involvement in climate change and other environmental issues affecting cities. Subnational global engagement can challenge national diplomatic efforts, while at the same time may also increase the administrative and management burden of cities. This chapter provides a historical and conceptual frame for understanding the rise of subnational actors in global policy, their main motivation and functional roles, and involvement in associations within national governments, subnational politics, and international organizations.
William A. Schambra and Krista L. Shaffer
This article examines the relation between civil society and institutional philanthropy. It explains that institutional philanthropy is an outgrowth of civil society, yet it behaves as if it were somehow ashamed of its civil society origins. It discusses the rise of the so-called scientific philanthropy and comments on Alexis de Tocqueville's view on decentralized administration and local voluntary associations as contained in his book Democracy in America. It argues that if institutional philanthropy is interested in a unique and immensely powerful role in American public life, it should stop denigrating civil society associations and attend to the alarming deficits in democratic engagement that it had a hand in producing.
This article examines the role of civil society in peace and peace-building efforts. It argues that civil society is conceptually relevant precisely because it concerns a plurality of visions that are articulated in a plurality of ways, all of which ultimately contribute to the peaceful interactions of human beings. It highlights the role played by civil society in the post-Cold War peace and peace-building agendas, mirroring its trajectory in the fields of development and democracy.
Solava Ibrahim and David Hulme
This article explores the achievements of civil society in the area of poverty reduction. It argues that civil society organizations can promote poverty reduction by pushing for macro-level structural changes through advocacy, lobbying the government for policy change at the national level and providing effective services directly to the poor at the grassroots. It highlights the achievement of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in disseminating a politics of hope and an empowering mindset that inspires the poor and helps them to voice their demands.
This article evaluates the capacity of civil society to transform power relations. It discusses difference meanings of civil society and argues that each carries with it a parallel understanding of power and its components. It analyzes the changing forms and spaces of power, as well as the levels across which they occur, and explores some of their implications for civil society in practice. It also considers empirical evidence of civil society's transformational role.
This article examines the trends in public journalism in relation to civil society. It highlights the emergence of a new investigative journalism ecosystem, in which some of the most ambitious reporting projects will increasingly emanate from the public realm rather than from private, commercial outlets. It suggests that under this set up, the journalist will have more editorial freedom and the public will benefit from the supply of independent, in-depth journalism that would not otherwise exist, in multimedia and infinitely more accessible forms.
Harry C. Boyte
This article examines the relevance of public work to civil society. It explains that the concept of civil society as a home for the deliberative citizen and the related idea of volunteer service has gained currency as an alternative to the rancor and fragmentation which are the stock-in-trade of public culture. It outlines the profound challenges that face democracy against the onslaught of a spreading consumer culture and details the limits of civil society and the deliberative citizen. It argues that there are two very different ideas of civic agency embedded in the recent history of civil society, corresponding to different concepts of the citizen and civic education.
Donald E. Miller
This article examines the religion between civil society and religion. It explains that religion plays an important though complicated role in a healthy civil society ecosystem by providing a location for moral debate and the articulation of competing social visions about what is good, right, and compassionate. It suggests that religious institutions also bring many assets to civil society because they have physical space, leadership, volunteers, and material resources and they are able to mobilize people around important social policy issues.
This article examines the relation between civil society and social capital. It explains that over the last twenty-five years, the concepts of civil society and social capital have experienced a remarkable rise to prominence across many disciplines and sectors. It offers an overview of the concept of social capital and provides a brief survey of the substantive issues to which it has drawn attention, especially as they pertain to the role of civil society organizations in facilitating collective action, economic development, and democratic governance. It also considers some of the key implications of this research for policy and practice.
This article explores the neglected terrain of spirituality and civil society and argues that the spiritual character of much civil society action should be placed at the center of the analysis. It considers the resources that spirituality provides citizens and activists so that they can be more effective in their civic activities in both in associational life and in their interactions in the public sphere. It contends that spirituality lies at the core of what makes civil society possible because it strengthens the organizations that construct it, permeates the arenas that sustain it and inspires the search for civil society itself.
This article investigates whether civil society can transform markets. It explores the three levels of effects of contemporary forms of civil society action on the behavior of market actors and evaluates their social, environmental, and economic impacts. It describes new economic and geopolitical developments that complicate and enrich the encounter between civil society and the market and re-evaluates the results of these encounters in the light of these new developments.
Susanne C. Moser and Lisa Dilling
This article explains the behaviour of communications that have been taking place in the context of climate change and how fruitful they have been so far. It states that important insights can be gained from better understanding the way climate change has been communicated to date and how this communication has been received and interpreted. This article reveals further that communication of climate change has been less effective than one might wish for several reasons. It offers more detailed diagnoses of those reasons and makes suggestions for potential remedies based on the extant literature. Furthermore, it articulates a role for communication that is broader than some communicators might assume. It also suggests that people in a democratic society, are best served by actively engaging with an issue, making their voices and values heard, and contributing to the formulation of societal responses.
Naureen Chowdhury Fink and Alison Davidian
This chapter analyses the gender dimension of terrorism and counterterrorism efforts. It explores women’s roles as both supporters and preventers of terrorism. It tracks the increasing incorporation of gender in the counterterrorism strategy of the United Nations and the growing focus on the intersections between the Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) and countering terrorism agendas. The chapter suggests that the WPS Agenda and the countering violent extremism program are convergent and complementary. At the same time, counterterrorism measures have had gendered collateral effects and continue to utilize gender stereotypes. The chapter provides suggestions for what a more gender-sensitive approach would mean for counterterrorism efforts.
Transnational regulation, both private and public, requires compliance instruments different from those deployed in domestic regulations. These policy tools are one key facet of transnational administration. The chapter addresses three fundamental questions. Which global standards should be monitored? Who should monitor compliance with global standards? How should compliance with global standards be monitored? The unit of analysis for compliance monitoring should be global supply chains that adopt compliance programmes applied to internal business units, subsidiaries, and independent suppliers, operating across different jurisdictions. The objective of effective compliance monitoring is to minimize costs of governance and transactions, and maximize effective oversight. Monitoring compliance of business units within large corporations and independent suppliers calls for different yet coordinated instruments including corporate, employment, and contract law. The structure of the chains, their composition, and the allocation of power significantly influence the architecture of compliance and the mix of hierarchical, peer, and delegated control.
The world is confronting a lengthening list of unresolved global challenges, many of which possess the properties of global public goods. However, we still lack a fully-fledged theory and practice of genuine global public policy. Based on an analysis of what sets global public goods, such as climate change, cyber-security, and international financial stability apart from other policy concerns, this chapter identifies five basic features that a global public policy would need in order to suit the purpose of global public good provision and develop into a recognized new policy field as a function of governance systems, nationally and internationally.
Meng-Hsuan Chou and Pauline Ravinet
The rise of global initiatives in many policy sectors is an emerging phenomenon that deserves the attention of scholars interested in international relations, regional integration, and policy sciences, as well as practitioners seeking comparative examples beyond their national and regional borders. This chapter demonstrates the value-added of the design orientation in studying this phenomenon and the implications for the contemporary delivery of public services and goods. It begins by describing three waves of policy design studies and their insights for unpacking the relationship between instrument design and intended outcomes. The overview reveals a notable feature of the extant policy design approach: its empirical preoccupation with domestic-level developments, which inform but confine theory development. This chapter introduces the analytical steps required to operationalize policy design insights in examining global public policy and transnational administration. In so doing, it calls for a new metaphor for policy design that would incorporate the beyond-the-state dimension.