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Addressing Local Fiscal Disparities  

Tracy M. Gordon

Print publication date:
Dec 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
The United States is considered a highly decentralized country. More recently, American federalism has been in a state of flux. At the same time, decentralization has been on the rise ... More

Africa’s Urbanization: Challenges and Opportunities  

M. Freire, S. Lall, and D. Leipziger

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Apr 2015
This chapter examines Africa’s urbanization and the challenges and opportunities it presents, with emphasis on what it will take to make African cities efficient, sustainable, and ... More

Agricultural Markets in Ethiopia  

Bart Minten PhD, Thomas Reardon, and Seneshaw Tamru

Print publication date:
Jan 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Ethiopia’s agricultural markets are quickly evolving, driven by major contextual changes including high population growth, rapid urbanization, major infrastructure investments, income ... More

The Agricultural Sector  

Carlos José Caetano Bacha

This chapter analyzes the evolution of agriculture in Brazil from the early sixteenth century until the second decade of the twenty-first century. It focuses on seven domestic and external ... More

Agriculture’s Changing Role in Ethiopia’s Economic Transformation  

Stefan Dercon and Douglas Gollin

Print publication date:
Jan 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2019
This chapter discusses the role agriculture has played in growth and economic transformation in Ethiopia since the 1990s. Ethiopia’s dominant development strategy narrative since the 1990s ... More

Anti-Poverty Transfers and Poverty Reduction  

Armando Barrientos

Print publication date:
Oct 2018
Online publication date:
Aug 2018
This chapter examines the role that public policy initiatives—specifically anti-poverty transfers—have played in the reduction of poverty and inequality in Brazil. A number of anti-poverty ... More

Antitrust and Competition Policy in Brazil  

Eduardo Pontual Ribeiro, Camila Pires-Alves, and Luis Carlos D. Prado

Print publication date:
Oct 2018
Online publication date:
Aug 2018
This chapter presents and analyzes Brazil’s competition policy on merger control and the abuse of market power. Its role as an important Brazilian public policy derives from a combination ... More

Are Large Metropolitan Areas Still Viable?  

Edwin S. Mills

This chapter examines the functions of and prospects for large metropolitan areas (MAs) in the United States. It argues that the high cost of transporting people and goods is a necessary, ... More

Assessing Poverty Trends in Ethiopia, 1990–2015  

John Sender

Print publication date:
Jan 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Rural Ethiopians who lack access to a few basic (non-food) wage goods are defined as ‘most deprived’. Like many other extremely vulnerable Africans, they derive little benefit from donor ... More

Assessing State-Level Science and Technology Policies: North Carolina’s Experience with SBIR State Matching Grants  

John Hardin, Lukas Brun, and Lauren Lanahan

Print publication date:
Sep 2015
Online publication date:
Oct 2015
State government R&D expenditures play a critical role in supporting innovation in the United States. This chapter discusses the growing role of US state governments in supporting R&D ... More

Banking in Latin America: Developments and Prospects  

Fernando J. Cardim De Carvalho, Luiz Fernando De Paula, and Jonathan Williams

Print publication date:
Oct 2019
Online publication date:
Nov 2019
This chapter offers a unique portrayal of the evolution of banking in Latin America. We contextualize our analysis by providing a detailed assessment of how financial policy has evolved ... More

Banking in the United States  

Robert DeYoung

Print publication date:
Oct 2019
Online publication date:
Nov 2019
The past forty years has witnessed a near total transformation of the US banking industry, as well as a near total disaster. The bank regulatory framework established during the Great ... More

Brazil’s Agricultural Modernization and Embrapa  

Geraldo B. Martha Jr. and Eliseu Alves

Brazilian agriculture reinvented itself by targeting a science-based approach. Embrapa, the research arm of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, is recognized as key in this process. A ... More

Brazil’s Import-Substitution Industrialization  

Werner Baer

Print publication date:
Oct 2018
Online publication date:
Aug 2018
This chapter examines the development of Brazil’s inward-oriented industrialization strategy, commonly termed “import-substitution industrialization” (ISI). Originating in the 1930s under ... More

Brazil’s Macroeconomic Policy Institutions, Quasi-Stagnation, and the Interest Rate–Exchange Rate Trap  

Luiz Carlos Bresser-Perreira

Print publication date:
Oct 2018
Online publication date:
Aug 2018
This chapter examines the evolution of macroeconomic policy and institutions over the long term and the ways in which they have influenced the growth path of the Brazilian economy. It ... More

Brazil’s Northeast  

Alexandre Rands Barros

Print publication date:
Oct 2018
Online publication date:
Aug 2018
The Brazilian Northeast is a large poor region, which was the first to be colonized in Brazil. The region experienced some dynamism as a result of its early role as a centre of the ... More

Brazil, the BRICS, and the Changing Landscape of Global Economic Governance  

Peri da Silva

Print publication date:
Oct 2018
Online publication date:
Aug 2018
This chapter investigates the current as well as the potential degree of cooperation among the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) economies. It shows that the increasing degree of ... More

The Brazilian Development Bank  

Luiz Ricardo Cavalcante

Print publication date:
Oct 2018
Online publication date:
Aug 2018
This chapter discusses the role played by the Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES) based upon a survey of its costs and benefits reported in the literature. It provides some theoretical ... More

Brazilian Structuralism  

Joseph L. Love

Print publication date:
Oct 2018
Online publication date:
Aug 2018
This chapter examines the evolution of the structuralist school of economic thought in the Brazilian context. The intellectual roots of structuralism are analyzed, as is the influence this ... More

Brazilian Trade and International Economic Prospects in an Anti-Globalization Era  

Donald V. Coes

Print publication date:
Oct 2018
Online publication date:
Aug 2018
This chapter reviews some of the major trends in Brazilian trade and international economic policy, including its reaction to international commodity market and capital market shocks in ... More

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