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Abnormalities of Event-Related Potential Components in Schizophrenia  

Brian F. O'Donnell, Dean F. Salisbury, Margaret A. Niznikiewicz, Colleen A. Brenner, and Jenifer L. Vohs

Published in print:
Dec 2011
Published Online:
Sep 2012
Schizophrenia is a disabling psychotic illness that has been associated with alterations in synaptic connectivity and neurotransmission. Since event-related potential (ERP) components are ... More

Absolute Pitch  

Psyche Loui

Published in print:
Jan 2016
Published Online:
Oct 2014
Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or categorize musical pitches accurately without an external reference. Although AP is generally thought to be rare, music psychology ... More

Achromatic transparency  

Walter Gerbino

Published in print:
Aug 2015
Published Online:
Aug 2014
The chapter illustrates the historical background, the theoretical ideas, and the empirical findings that make achromatic transparency a central phenomenon in perceptual organization ... More

The acoustic environment  

William J. Davies

Published in print:
Jan 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article provides an overview of what shapes the acoustic signals that arrive at the ear. There are three physical processes which are capable of generating audible sound: a vibrating ... More

Acquired Alexias: Mechanisms of Reading  

Ellyn A. Riley, C. Elizabeth Brookshire, and Diane L. Kendall

Published in print:
Jan 2018
Published Online:
Mar 2015
Reading is one of the most important cognitive skills an individual can acquire and the process of reading has been debated much in the psycholinguistic, neurolinguistic, and educational ... More

Acquired Dysgraphias: Mechanisms of Writing  

Pélagie M. Beeson and Kindle Rising

Published in print:
Jan 2018
Published Online:
Aug 2015
Acquired dysgraphia refers to disorders of spelling or writing due to neurological damage in individuals with normal premorbid literacy skills. Dysgraphia can result from the disruption of ... More

The Acquisition and Use of Causal Structure Knowledge  

Benjamin Margolin Rottman

Published in print:
Jun 2017
Published Online:
May 2017
This chapter provides an introduction to how humans learn and reason about multiple causal relations connected together in a causal structure. The first half of the chapter focuses on how ... More

Acquisition of Sign Language as a Second Language  

Deborah Chen Pichler and Elena Koulidobrova

Published in print:
Dec 2015
Published Online:
Feb 2016
Research interest in sign L21 sign acquisition is growing, fueled by dramatic increases in sign language learning (Welles, 2004). Researchers ask to what extent typical L2 patterns apply ... More

ACT-R and Beyond  

Dario D. Salvucci

Published in print:
Oct 2017
Published Online:
Nov 2014
ACT-R is a computational cognitive architecture intended to represent and simulate human thoughts and behaviors. It posits a declarative knowledge base with an associated computational ... More

Adaptive Automation  

David B. Kaber

Published in print:
Feb 2013
Published Online:
May 2013
This chapter presents a review of adaptive automation (AA) research. The motivation for AA includes previous demonstrations of reduced operator cognitive load, increased operator situation awareness, ... More

Adaptive Norm-Based Coding of Face Identity  

Gillian Rhodes and David A. Leopold

Published in print:
Jul 2011
Published Online:
Nov 2012
Facial appearance changes with age and health affecting skin color as well as facial and head hair. Yet somehow the brain is able to see past shared structure and dynamic deformations to ... More

Adolescent Literacy: Development and Instruction  

Susan R. Goldman and Catherine E. Snow

Published in print:
Sep 2015
Published Online:
Apr 2015
The demands of literacy tasks change appreciably after students have mastered the basics of reading words accurately and with reasonable automaticity. At about age 10 reading becomes a ... More

Advances in the Genetics of Deafness  

Kathleen S. Arnos and Arti Pandya

Published in print:
Jan 2011
Published Online:
Sep 2012
Genetic factors are believed to account for more than half of all cases of congenital or early-onset moderate to profound deafness. The identification of several dozen genes for deafness, ... More

Aesthetics  

David Huron

Published in print:
Jan 2016
Published Online:
Feb 2015
A thumbnail history of experimental aesthetics is offered, including the influences of the cognitive revolution and evolutionary psychology on aesthetic discourse. In contrast to ... More

Affect and Culture  

Manfred Holodynski and Wolfgang Friedlmeier

Published in print:
May 2012
Published Online:
Nov 2012
The chapter starts with an overview of the ongoing debate between evolutionary and culture-relativistic approaches and their contributions to describing and explaining cultural ... More

Affect, Motivation, Working Memory, and Mathematics  

Alex M. Moore, Nathan O. Rudig, and Mark H. Ashcraft

Published in print:
Jul 2015
Published Online:
Mar 2014
This article reviews the topics of affect, motivation, working memory, and their relationships to mathematics learning and performance. The underlying factors of interest, motivation, ... More

Affective Forecasting and Well-Being  

Barry Schwartz and Roseanna Sommers

Published in print:
Mar 2013
Published Online:
Jun 2013
Every decision requires a prediction, both about what will happen and about how the decider will about what happens. Thus, decisions require what is known as . This chapter reviews evidence that ... More

The afferent synapse  

Jonathan Ashmore

Published in print:
Jan 2010
Published Online:
Nov 2012
This article introduces a number of critical features of the afferent synapse with particular reference to mammalian hearing. The auditory synapse is the first relay point for the input of ... More

African American English and Its Link to Reading Achievement  

Holly K. Craig

Published in print:
Sep 2015
Published Online:
Jan 2015
African American English (AAE) is a major American dialect. Recent research has focused on student patterns of AAE feature usage and found important relationships between AAE and reading ... More

Aging and Metacognitive Control  

Christopher Hertzog

Published in print:
Jun 2016
Published Online:
Aug 2015
This chapter reviews age differences in metacognitive control, defined as behaviors based on the monitoring of cognitive systems and states with the goal of improving the quality of ... More

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