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Age-Related and Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Central Consequences in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus  

Ruili Xie, Tessa-Jonne F. Ropp, Michael R. Kasten, and Paul B. Manis

Hearing loss generally occurs in the auditory periphery but leads to changes in the central auditory system. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and age-related hearing loss (ARHL) affect ... More

Aging Processes in the Subcortical Auditory System  

Donald M. Caspary and Daniel A. Llano

Published Online:
Sep 2018
As arguably the third most common malady of industrialized populations, age-related hearing loss is associated with social isolation and depression in a subset of the population that will ... More

The Auditory Brainstem Implant: Restoration of Speech Understanding from Electric Stimulation of the Human Cochlear Nucleus  

Robert V. Shannon

Published Online:
Jan 2019
The auditory brainstem implant (ABI) is a surgically implanted device to electrically stimulate auditory neurons in the cochlear nucleus complex of the brainstem in humans to restore ... More

Axon Trajectories in the Auditory Brainstem  

Nell Beatty Cant

Published Online:
Feb 2019
This chapter summarizes what is known about the organization of the axons that make up the white matter of the auditory brainstem. The sources of the axons in each of the major fiber ... More

Brainstem Encoding of Speech and Music Sounds in Humans  

Nina Kraus and Trent Nicol

Published Online:
Sep 2018
The encoding of speech and music in the auditory brainstem is available at the human scalp via the auditory-evoked frequency following response. The FFR, primarily reflecting activity in ... More

Cancer and Pain  

Rie Bager Hansen and Sarah Falk

Published Online:
Nov 2018
Pain is a common and feared complication for many cancer patients. Cancer pain covers numerous pain syndromes; since the treatment is complex, it is essential to assess each individual ... More

Changes in the Inferior Colliculus Associated with Hearing Loss: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, Age-Related Hearing Loss, Tinnitus and Hyperacusis  

Alan R. Palmer and Joel I. Berger

The inferior colliculus is an important auditory relay center that undergoes fundamental changes following hearing loss, whether noise induced (NIHL) or age related (ARHL). These changes ... More

Chloride Channels in Nociceptors  

Uhtaek Oh and Jooyoung Jung

Published Online:
Mar 2019
Pain may be induced by activation of various ion channels expressed in primary afferent neurons. These channels function as molecular sensors that detect noxious chemical, temperature, or ... More

The Cochlear Nuclei: Synaptic Plasticity in Circuits and Synapses in the Ventral Cochlear Nuclei  

Donata Oertel, Xiao-Jie Cao, and Alberto Recio-Spinoso

Plasticity in neuronal circuits is essential for optimizing connections as animals develop and for adapting to injuries and aging, but it can also distort the processing, as well as ... More

The Cochlear Nucleus as a Generator of Tinnitus-Related Signals  

J.A. Kaltenbach and D.A. Godfrey

Tinnitus most commonly begins with alterations of input from the ear resulting from cochlear trauma or overstimulation of the ear. Because the cochlear nucleus is the first processing ... More

Control of Locomotion in Hexapods  

Roy E. Ritzmann and Sasha N. Zill

Published in print:
Apr 2019
Published Online:
Feb 2017
This article discusses legged locomotion in insects. It describes the basic patterns of coordinated movement both within each leg and among the various legs. The nervous system controls ... More

Descending Auditory Pathways and Plasticity  

Brett R. Schofield and Nichole L. Beebe

Descending auditory pathways originate from multiple levels of the auditory system and use a variety of neurotransmitters, including glutamate, GABA, glycine, acetylcholine, and dopamine. ... More

Deviance Detection and Encoding Acoustic Regularity in the Auditory Midbrain  

Manuel S. Malmierca, Guillermo V. Carbajal, and Carles Escera

Published Online:
Jan 2019
In the past, there was a rather corticocentric conception of the processing of relationships between sounds that used to mostly relegate the midbrain function to a mere relay. However, ... More

The Diversity of Neuropathic Pain  

Nanna Brix Finnerup and Nadine Attal

Published Online:
Nov 2018
The present chapter presents an update of the current classification, diagnosis, assessment, mechanisms, and treatment of neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain, which is defined as pain ... More

Dorsal Horn Pain Mechanisms  

Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer and Robert Ganley

The spinal dorsal horn and its equivalent structure in the brainstem constitute the first sites of synaptic integration in the pain pathway. A huge body of literature exists on alterations ... More

Dorsal Root Ganglion Neuron Types and Their Functional Specialization  

Edward C. Emery and Patrik Ernfors

Primary sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) respond and relay sensations that are felt, such as those for touch, pain, temperature, itch, and more. The ability to ... More

Extraction of Auditory Information by Modulation of Neuronal Ion Channels  

Leonard K. Kaczmarek

All neurons express a subset of over seventy genes encoding potassium channel subunits. These channels have been studied in auditory neurons, particularly in the medial nucleus of the ... More

Glial Cells in the Auditory Brainstem  

Giedre Milinkeviciute and Karina S. Cramer

The auditory brainstem carries out sound localization functions that require an extraordinary degree of precision. While many of the specializations needed for these functions reside in ... More

Heat Pain and Cold Pain  

Felix Viana and Thomas Voets

Published Online:
Feb 2019
Noxious cold and noxious heat have detrimental effects on key biological macromolecules and thus on the integrity of cells, tissues, and organisms. Thanks to the action of a subset of ... More

Human Genetics of Pain  

James J. Cox, Ingo Kurth, and C. Geoffrey Woods

Published Online:
Feb 2019
Inherited pain disorders are typically rare in the general population. However, in the postgenomic era, single-gene mutations for numerous human Mendelian pain disorders have been ... More